Health care of Kyrgyzstan
Zdravoohraneniye Kyrgyzstana

ISSN 1694-8068 (Print)

ISSN 1694-805X (Online)

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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Pages: 61-64
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Pages: 99-100
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Authors: Isupova A.A., Yakubov A.S., Isupov R.V., Lang M.Yu.
Pages: 149-157
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
- IMPACT OF HIGH-MOUNTAIN CLIMATE ON WOUND PROCESS
Pages: 128-132
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
- LATENT TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION
Pages: 133-141
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
A case of chronic disorders of the cerebrospinal circulation in patient with combined (vascular and spondylogenic) pathology
Authors: Mamytova E.M., Janybek u. Bekjan, , Nurbekova U.A.
Pages: 55-59
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This article presents a clinical case of chronic impairment of the cerebrospinal circulation in patient with combined
pathology. A detailed neurological examination, as well as an analysis of additional laboratory and instrumental investigations
made it possible to identify the leading etiopathogenetic mechanism of damage to nerve structures that underlies
the development of motor deficit in a patient with chronic somatic pathology.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
A clinical case of infiltrative-suppurative form of zooanthroponous trichophytia
Authors: Usubaliev M.B., Zhaparova А.К. , Dhroso H., Djusupbekov S. D.
Pages: 28-32
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Introduction. This research paper describes a clinical case of an infiltrative and nasal form of zooanthroponous
trichophytosis in a 9-year-old boy. Trichophytosis is a skin disease that can affect the scalp, body and nails. The infiltrative-inflammatory form is one of the most severe clinical variants of trichophytosis, which is characterized by inflammatory skin changes and suppuration.
The aim of the study. This paper describes the case of a 9-year-old child who presented with symptoms of infiltrative and
fungal trichophytosis of the scalp.
Materials and methods. The diagnosis of the disease was based on clinical findings and the result of mycological investigations. A culture study showed he presence of Trichophyton verrucosum fungus in skin samples. Treatment was carried
out with antimycotic drugs for 8 weeks. In addition, measures were taken to prevent the spread of the disease, including
personal hygiene, disinfection of articles of use and thorough treatment of clothing and bedding.
Results. The importance of timely diagnosis of this mycotic infection in order to prevent the development of widespread
suppuration processes, leading to a permanent cosmetic defect in the form of foci of cicatricial atrophy of the scalp, was
indicated.
Conclusions. There was a good effect of treatment with fluconazole and local therapy with lotions with potassium permanganate, hypertonic sodium chloride solution and 20% ichthyol ointment.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
A method for restoring the acromioclavicular joint in case of its damage
Authors: Nabiev E.N., Khalkhojaev M.K.
Pages: 61-67
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Introduction. The choice of treatment methods for injuries of the acromioclavicular joint of the ACJ is an
urgent problem of modern traumatology. The shortcomings of the existing methods of treatment of ACL injuries indicate
the need for in-depth research to find optimal methods for correcting damage to this localization.
Purpose of the study - To present the developed new combined method for the restoration of the acromioclavicular joint.
Materials and methods.A new combined method for restoring the acromioclavicular joint is described, developed by the
authors in the clinic of traumatology and orthopedics, for which a copyright certificate of the Republic of Kazakhstan
No. 27950 dated July 22, 2022 was obtained.
Results. A new combined method for restoring the acromioclavicular joint by forming a new acromioclavicular ligament
and fixing the acromioclavicular joint with a hook-shaped plate excludes the possibility of displacement of the clavicle
both upwards and in the anterior-posterior direction and provides sufficient stability of the acromioclavicular joint, and
also allows removing hook-shaped plate in the early stages (3-4 months), thereby preventing complications associated
with long-term presence of the hook-shaped plate (1 year or more) in the area of the acromioclavicular joint, namely,
subacromial osteolysis of the acromial process of the scapula, subacromial impingement, fracture of the acromial process
and hook plate.
Conclusions. A new combined method for restoring the acromioclavicular joint (copyright certificate No. 27950 dated
July 22, 2022) provides stable fixation of the acromioclavicular joint, early rehabilitation treatment and removal of the
uncinate plate in the early stages (3-4 months), thereby contributing to prevention of complications associated with prolonged
stay of the uncinate plate in the scapula (1 year or more), namely, subacromial osteolysis of the acromial process
of the scapula, subacromial impingement, fracture of the acromial process of the scapula and the hook of the plate.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
A modern view on the problems of early and differential diagnostics of intra-brain non-traumatic hematomas
Authors: Mamytova E.M., , Zholdoshev E.K.
Pages: 73-79
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The article presents a literature review of the current state of the problem of diagnosing intracerebral nontraumatic
hematomas, including diagnostic value, informativeness and sensitivity of clinical, routine laboratory and instrumental
and neuroimaging research methods. Also presented are literature data on controversial issues of the diagnostic efficiency
of MRI in the acute and acute periods of hemorrhagic stroke.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
A modern view on the situation of the post-transplantation period and tactics of managing patients after kidney transplantation in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Bakazova N.K., Kaliev R.R., Imankulova A.S., Mukhambediev V.M.
Pages: 21-27
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The number of patients with end-stage chronic renal failure requiring kidney transplantation is increasing all
over the world. The relevance of the issue of availability of kidney transplantation and the development of organizational
and methodological approaches in the pre- and post-transplantation period in the conditions of Kyrgyzstan is increasing.
The purpose of the study is to conduct a situational analysis of the state of the kidney donation and transplantation system
in the Kyrgyz Republic. Materials and methods: a comparative retrospective analysis of the outcomes of kidney transplantation
in patients with chronic renal failure who underwent kidney transplantation, living in Kyrgyzstan in the late
post-transplantation period, was carried out. Results and conclusions: Since 1999, kidney transplantation has been performed
in 536 citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic of various age groups, 58% of whom were recipients aged 26 to 45 years,
and 8.6% - children under the age of 18 years. Kidney transplantation was predominantly performed in Turkey - 56.5%,
in Kyrgyzstan - 9%, in Tajikistan - 8.8%. An analysis of the degree of relationship between donors and recipients revealed
the prevalence of 1st and 2nd degrees of kinship in 34.1% and 34.7%, respectively. The share of unrelated transplantation
accounted for 8%, and the minimum figure was cadaveric transplantation - 1.9%. In the late post-transplant period, 82.8%
of recipients had satisfactory renal graft function, and 8.0% of patients had loss of renal graft function. The mortality
rate of patients after kidney transplantation was 9.2%, the main cause of mortality was COVID-19 (26.5%), in 18.4% the
cause was not established, in 12.2% - graft rejection, in 10.2% - sepsis and malignant neoplasms of various localizations.
The results obtained allow us to conclude that transplanted kidney recipients are at high risk due to the existing longterm
state of immunosuppression and the presence of many comorbidities.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
A new stage in the treatment of tuberculosis: Innovative approaches in the management of tuberculosis. Сonference materials “THE UNION”, 2023
Authors: Myrzaliev B.B., Ahmatov M.B., Duishekeeva А.B., Kulzhabaeva A.A., Kadyrov A.S., Toktogonova A.A., Turdumambetova G.K., Akhmetova R.Kh., Musaeva A.M.
Pages: 17-24
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The article presents the key news and achievements discussed at "THE UNION" conference in 2023. They discussed the reduction of drug prices, the prospects for future treatment, different TB treatment regimens, as well as the results of expanding the use of innovative methods in a number of countries. Particular attention is paid to the role of communities, private organizations and digital technologies, including video treatment support, in improving the effectiveness and accessibility of TB treatment. Literature sources are based on the materials of the conference "THE UNION", Paris, 2023.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
A simple analysis of the measles surveillance system in the Kyrgyz Republic, 2019
Authors: Malysheva M.A., Kasabekova L.K., Dadanova G.S.
Pages: 83-88
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Introduction. Measles is an extremely contagious severe disease of viral origin. Before the introduction of the
measles vaccine in 1963 and the widespread vaccination, major measles epidemics occurred every 2-3 years, there were
2.6 million deaths from measles annually.
Research objectives. The objectives of this assessment are to describe the EPID surveillance system for measles and to
assess its properties, such as usefulness, timeliness, importance, simplicity.
Materials and methods of research. The assessment was carried out according to the instructions of the US Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). To assess the epidemiological surveillance of measles, an epidemiological method
was used: the study of morbidity by territory among various population groups, in time and place.
Results. A sensitive, flexible and useful system of epidemiological surveillance of measles has been created and is functioning
in the Kyrgyz Republic, as it determines the trend of the epidemiological situation in the incidence of measles,
determines the outbreak. The evaluation by the criterion of importance showed that vaccination is 29 times more profitable
than the cost of treatment in terms of financial costs.
Conclusions. The analysis revealed problems in vaccination against measles. A detailed assessment of the root problems
of the 2019 measles outbreak should be carried out.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
A simple assessment of the HIV surveillance system in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2018-2021.
Authors: Kemelbek k.N., Karagulova A.S., Mergenova G.A.
Pages: 97-101
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Introduction. IV infection causes progressive insufficiency of the immune system with an asymptomatic course,
subsequently leading to the development of secondary infections, various immunological disorders, as well as an increased
risk of developing various types of cancer, with the development of the terminal stage of AIDS. In 1996, the first registration
of HIV infection in a citizen of the Kyrgyz Republic took place. In the regions of the country, the registration of
HIV infection began in 1998. From September to December 2021, according to the instructions of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention of the USA, a simple epid assessment was carried out.supervision of HIV infection in the Kyrgyz
Republic. This article presents the results of the evaluation of the HIV surveillance system for 2018-2021, its strengths
and weaknesses. Based on the results of the evaluation, recommendations for improving the system are given.
The purpose of the study is to describe and evaluate the surveillance system for HIV infection in the Kyrgyz Republic,
using the properties of epidsuch as simplicity, sensitivity, flexibility.
Materials and methods. The data sources for the assessment were the documents of the AIDS centers. The analysis of all
reports, regulatory documents, clinical protocols, electronic tracking of HIV cases was carried out.
Results. The system is complex, there are many duplicate reporting forms, the sensitivity of the system is high, which
was 94.8%, the positive prognostic value was 47%, the system is timely, which can be assessed by the example of an increase
in adherence to ART by 15%.
Conclusions. The system is complicated by the number of reporting forms, of which there are 9, which can be circumvented
by entering the necessary reporting data immediately into an electronic database. The system showed high sensitivity
(94.8%), which is a very good indicator for surveillance, with early detection of an outbreak. Reports in the HIV
surveillance system in the Kyrgyz Republic are provided in a timely manner. The detection of new cases of HIV infection
is monitored daily, EPID is carried out at all levels of AIDS centers supervision.
Кыргызстандын Кемельбек к.Н., Карагулова А.Ш., Мергенова Г.А. саламаттык сактоо.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Abdominal trauma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Authors: Moldotashova A.K., Derkembayeva J.S., Kabylov Y.S., Shabdanova J.T.
Pages: 149-153
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Carrying out cardiopulmonary resuscitation carries the possibility of developing injuries of the abdominal organs.
Intra-abdominal injuries are considered rare and, according to pathological and anatomical studies, reach 2.5%. Intensive
care physicians, if necessary, should take appropriate measures for their early diagnosis and selection of optimal
treatment tactics.
Purpose of the study. A review of the literature data on determining the mechanisms of development, methods for diagnosing
and treating injuries of the abdominal organs after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Materials and Methods. To search for scientific publications, we used the PubMed database, the Google Scholar search
engine, as well as reference lists of references for the period from 1960 to 2021 in the following terms: “liver rupture”,
“spleen rupture”, “stomach rupture”, "cardiopulmonary resuscitation". Obtained results and discussions. Carrying out
cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be accompanied by various complications. There are many reports of frequent traumatic
injuries after resuscitation. At the same time, there are few data in the literature on injuries of the abdominal organs as a
result of cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to the rare frequency of detection of these injuries, which, if diagnosed late,
can lead to fatal consequences.
Conclusion. After resuscitation, one should be aware of the possibility of damage to the abdominal organs. Early diagnosis
and timely treatment of these complications contribute to increased survival.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
ACHIEVEMENTS OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY IN IMPROVING DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF STOMACH CANCER
Pages: 94-98
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
ACTUAL QUESTIONS OF TOXOPLASMOSI
Pages: 80-83
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Acute complicated pyelonephritis in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Imankulova A.S., Kabaev B.A., Kozhomkulova K.A., Ryskulbekov N.R. , Sadyrbekov N.J.
Pages: 71-78
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The most frequent (11.1%) and serious urological diseases are urinary tract infections [19]. In all age groups
among kidney diseases the most common is pyelonephritis and ranks 2nd in the structure of nosologies among urological diseases [3,19].
This nosology occupies is an important cause of primary disability and death [13], thereby requiring significant
financial costs. More than 100,000 people are hospitalized each year for urinary tract infections, mainly
pyelonephritis [1]. The etiology of acute pyelonephritis is characterized by polyfactory . This article demonstrates
the frequency and structure of complications of acute pyelonephritis, as well as microbiological characteristics
and antibiotic resistance of pathogens.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
ACUTE DISORDERS OF CEREBRAL VENO
Pages: 19-22
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Adverse events to drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis in Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Osmonbekov M.D., Sagyndykova S.O., Kushubakov D.A., Tunkatarova J.K., Sulaimanova M.I.
Pages: 97-102
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Adverse reactions to drugs are a serious public health problem, which entails economic consequences: lengthening
the length of the patient's stay in the hospital, the need to individualize treatment regimens with the inclusion of
expensive reserve drugs, additional drugs and drugs to stop adverse reactions. The most problematic issue in the treatment
of tuberculosis is inadequate adherence to treatment, due to its duration, complexity and associated adverse events, leads
to the choice of a much more difficult and expensive treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Inadequate treatment
adherence occurs despite extensive global efforts by the World Health Organization, ministries of health and others to
implement a highly labor-intensive TB treatment program that includes direct observation of treatment by public health
workers.
Treatment of tuberculosis involves the simultaneous and long-term use of four to eight drugs, each of which has a wide
range of possible adverse effects. Most anti-TB drugs are well known and have been studied in clinical trials. However,
individual signs and symptoms of adverse events, such as skin rashes, abdominal pain, jaundice, shock, visual impairment,
hearing impairment, can cause severe consequences for patients stopping taking drugs, reducing the quality of life and
complicating daily activities. The frequency of occurrence of adverse reactions to drugs in patients with tuberculosis was
studied on the basis of received message cards / yellow cards for 2020-2021. in the Kyrgyz Republic.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Analysis of mortality from co-infection with HIV and viral hepatitis B and C in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Sattarova G. Zh., Suranbaeva G.S., Nurmatov Z.Sh.
Pages: 115-120
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Introduction. One of the main indicators of the burden of HIV infection and viral hepatitis B and C is the burden of disease due to premature death. The purpose of the study- analysis of mortality and determination of the indicator - years of potentially lost life (YPLL) from co-infection with HIV and viral hepatitis B and C in the Kyrgyz Republic. Materials and methods.A statistical analysis of the electronic database of 2879 deaths from HIV/AIDS for 2001-2021 in the republic. The morbidity, mortality, life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and YPLL have been analyzed. Also, a correlation was determined between the life expectancy of PLHIV and the conduct of antiretroviral therapy in the country by the method of squares (Pearson). Results. From 2001 to 2021, there has been a 23-fold increase in mortality from HIV infection (0.14 in 2001 - 3.3 in 2021 per 100,000 people). The average age of the deceased was 39.9 years. Among the deceased PLHIV, 60% were coinfected with parenteral viral hepatitis B and C. YPLL from HIV infection over the observed period of time amounted to 83817 lost person-years in the country. In dynamics, there is an increase in the average life expectancy of HIV-infected people after diagnosis (from 0.4 to 4.3 years), which is associated with an increase in antiretroviral therapy coverage, a direct strong correlation was established (r=0.96). Conclusion. The data obtained indicate a high burden of HIV/CH co-infection due to premature mortality. The case of death registered among able-bodied persons of young and reproductive age leads to significant losses of human capital.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Analysis of quality indicators of medical services for children in short-term stay departments at the level of healthcare organizations in Batken, Jalal-Abad, Osh regions and Osh city
Authors: ShukurovaV.K., Boronbaeva E.K., Subanbaeva G.M.
Pages: 189-197
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Introduction. The Department of Short-term stay (hereinafter referred to as OKP) is a structural subdevision
designed to provide up to daily (within 24 hours) inpatient medical care to the pediatric population in healthcare organizations
that do not require a long stay.
The purpose of the study. To analyze the indicators of the quality of medical services for children in short-stay departments
at the level of health organizations of Batken, Jalal-Abad, Osh regions and Osh.
Materials and methods. The analysis was carried out on the basis of the official statistics of the Health development center(
HDC) and the FOMS under the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic on the activities of the Department of
short-stay at the level of 23 health organizations of Batken, Jalal-Abad, Osh regions and Osh for the period from 2018
to 2020years. Results. The analysis of the age composition of children hospitalized in the Department of short-showed a predominance
of children under 5 years of age, who amounted to more than 70%, of whom more than 50% were children under 1 year
of age. Parents applied to the Department of short-stay mostly by self-referral (more than 70%), bypassing PHC for the
compared years. According to the treated cases, the Department of short-stay revealed that children were most often
treated for respiratory diseases (34 - 40%), in second place - diseases of the digestive system (16 – 24%), the third place
was taken by injuries and poisonings (12 – 24%). Comparison of mortality and mortality rates of children in hospitals in
dynamics shows their decrease – mortality of children in 2017 from 1.51% to 0.54% in 2020.
Conclusions. The creation of the department of short-stay (DSS), as an optimization of the children's health care services
has undoubtedly led to a decrease in unnecessarily prolonged hospitalization of children in hospitals, the provision of
timely medical services for acute respiratory infections, acute diseases of the digestive system, trauma and poisoning,
thereby improving the quality of medical care provided to children at the hospital level.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Analysis of the antibiotic resistance among women with purulent-septic complications after childbirth
Authors: Orozalieva B.K, Imankulova A.S., Аkmatov Т.А. , Subanova N. A. , Khegay E.V.
Pages: 31-39
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Due to their high prevalence and non-reducing frequency, postpartum purulent-septic diseases are one of the most
urgent problems of modern obstetrics. Over the past 10 years, they steadily ranked the fourth among causes of maternal
mortality in the world [1, 2]. Currently, the nature of the pathogens that cause postpartum complications has changed
significantly. The proportion of microbial associations has increased, which significantly aggravates the course of
postoperative purulent-septic complications and their therapy. [6,7]. This article demonstrates the etiological structure
of pathogens and the level of antibiotic resistance in patients with postpartum endometritis. The aim of the study is
to improve the results of treatment for women with purulent-septic complications after childbirth by optimizing antibacterial therapy based on the results of bacteriological studies. An analysis was carried out among 167 women admitted to the Department of Purulent-Septic Gynecology of the National Surgical Center under the Ministry of Health
and Social Development of the Kyrgyz Republic from 01.01.2019 to 25.12.2020, with the results of bacteriological
culture separated from the uterine cavity, the types of pathogens identified, sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics
were shown. The analysis of the etiological structure of the isolated strains revealed the prevailing role of gram-positive microflora in 43.7% of cases. Gram-negative microflora was found in 25.7% of patients. The most common
causative agents of postpartum endometritis were Esherichia coli 33.3%, Enteroccocus spp. 23.5%, Streptococcus
spp. 10.6%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 9.1%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus 6.1%. When studying the antibioticogram, the highest sensitivity of gram-negative microorganisms was revealed to meropenem in 90%, tobramycin
in 85%, amikacin in 80% of cases, and gram-positive flora to carbapenems up to 85% and vancomycin 95%. The
highest resistance of gram (+) and gram (-) microorganisms was found to b-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones of
2-3 generations, aminoglycosides of 1-2 generations. In order to curb the growth of microorganisms’resistance, it is
necessary to introduce a number of measures, including educational activities among doctors on the rules for the collection and transportation of biomaterials obtained from patients as well as on the rational use of antimicrobial drugs,
to revise the prescribing regimens of some drugs in cases of empirical therapy in order to improve the results of treatment, and to ensure bacteriological laboratories with the necessary equipment and consumables
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Analysis of the effect of morphological changes in the kidneys on the heart in IgA nephropathy
Authors: Aiypova D.A., Beishebaeva N.A., Salbaeva A.E., Kaliev R.R.
Pages: 13-18
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Introduction. The use of intravital nephrobiopsy in the Kyrgyz Republic has enriched the understanding of the
features of the morphological picture in various nephropathies. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of
primary glomerulonephritis worldwide.
Purpose of the study - Evaluation of the dependence of heart size restructuring on morphological changes in the kidneys
in IgA nephropathy
Materials and methods of research. 71 patients with IgAN were studied. Of these, 36 men (51%) and 35 (49%) women,
with an average age of 33±1.4 years (18-50). The diagnosis of IgAN was verified according to the Oxford histopathological
classification.
Results. most often in patients with IgAN - 70.4%, mesangial hypercellularity was detected. Endocapillary hypercellularity
was found in 57.7% of patients. At the same time, segmental glomerulosclerosis was found in 54.9% of cases, and tubular
atrophy in 60.5% of patients with IgAN. Mesangial proliferation contributed to changes in the cavities of the heart, an
increase in the size of the left ventricle (R=0.4)
Conclusions. According to the results of our study, a positive correlation was found between changes in the size of the
heart and the pattern of damage in IgAN.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Analysis of the growth of congenital intussusception in newborn infants in Kyrgyzstan
Authors: Porozhay V.N., Uzakbaev K.A., Akmentieva T.A.
Pages: 22-27
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Introduction. Congenital intestinal obstruction in newborns remains a major cause requiring careful diagnosis
and emergency surgical intervention in the neonatal period.
Objective of the study. To analyze the growth of congenital intestinal obstruction, surgical tactics and results of its treatment in newborn congenital intestinal obstruction.
Materials and Methods. 165 newborns with congenital intestinal obstruction were investigated in National Center for
Maternal and Child Health Protection. Of them 88 (53,3%) were boys and 77 (46,7%) were girls diagnosed with congenital intestinal obstruction.
Results and Discussion. Out of 165 (16.2%) neonates admitted with congenital intussusception, 20 (1.96%) children
were diagnosed with high intussusception. Low bowel obstruction was diagnosed in 145 (14.2%) children. Most frequently, multiple congenital malformations were detected in newborns with high bowel obstruction, so combined congenital heart defects and Down syndrome were noted in 12 (%) patients. In low intestinal obstruction, newborns rarely
had multiple congenital malformations.
Conclusions. The performed analysis indicates that it is necessary to develop neonatal surgical service in the Kyrgyz Republic to provide timely and qualified assistance to newborns with congenital intestinal obstruction.
The article analyzes the growth of congenital abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract causing high intestinal obstruction
in newborns in the regions of the Kyrgyz Republic. The malformations most frequently causing high intestinal obstruction
and methods of their correction in children are determined.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Analysis of the incidence of prostate diseases and their early detection based on the results of a scientific project for the study of the male population in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Kurmanbekov N.K., Kylychbekov M.B., Keneev R.N., Satybaldyev E.Е., Stambekova K.N.
Pages: 140-147
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This article presents the results of a study of the early incidence and prevalence of prostate diseases through a
comprehensive survey for 2021-22 in Chui (12%), Issyk-Kul (36%), Talas (32%), Osh (13%) and Jalal- Abad regions
(9%) (a total of 3265 men of various ages were examined) on the basis of an ongoing study of the scientific project "Early
detection of prostate diseases in men living in the Kyrgyz Republic", funded by the KSMA named after I.K. Akhunbaeva
(registration number 4220). Among the men who applied, 37.8% were urban residents and 62.2% were rural residents.
When applying, the features of complaints characteristic of prostate diseases were revealed and actually compared with
the detection of pathology, where there is evidence that such diseases as prostatitis (in the young age group - 27.2%) and
prostate hyperplasia (in the group of middle and old age - 28.4%), as well as prostate cancer are asymptomatic (6.7% in
the whole country). Of particular note are men who are not registered with the dispensary after undergoing surgery on
the prostate or the appearance of the first signs of the disease. A survey conducted on awareness (55.2% not aware) of
prostate diseases, not everyone was able to assess their health (11.3%) and indicated that they did not trust doctors (52.2%),
but were forced to seek medical help, often in neglected conditions and complicated cases, and in 41% the disease was
detected for the first time. The results of the study indicate the need to improve urological care for the population, including
its outpatient level, covering the educational work of the population, the effectiveness of which, first of all, determines
the completeness and timeliness of detection, and hence the effectiveness of the treatment of prostate diseases.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Analysis of the study of content of calcium and iron of some food products from various regions of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Aksupova A.M., Atambaeva R.M., Esenamanova M.K., Kochkorova F.A.
Pages: 178-184
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Introduction. The study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of macro-and micronutrients in the
daily diet according to age and its physiological needs is the main principle of healthy human nutrition.
The aim of the study. Analysis of the actual content of certain minerals in food products of various regions of the KR.
These studies are aimed at creating database on the chemical composition of food products in the KR.
Materials and methods. Studied the content of calcium and iron in the main food products- meat and dairy products, cereals,
vegetables) from five regions of the KR. 1470, studies were conducted. When determining the content of mineral
substances in food products, the AES-ICP method was used on an ICAP 6000/7000 N 51/21 spectrometer according to
GOST 30538-9.
Results. The results of a study of the content of calcium and iron in the main types of food products of the population of
Kyrgyz Republic (meat and dairy products, cereals and vegetables) are presented. A comparative assessment of the actual
content of calcium and iron in the above food products from different regions of KR with the date of Russian scientists
from the Institute of Nutrition, Moscow is given.
Conclusions. More biologically valuable in terms of calcium content is animal meet and all studied dairy products from
all regions of the KR. Batken rice is better, and in terms of Fe content, Uzgen rice is better than rice produced in the
Russian Federation.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Analysis of the use of narcotic drugs in the Chui region of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Cholponbaev K.S., Turgunalieva M.A., Muratova N.P.
Pages: 28-33
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Currently, there is insufficient provision and access of citizens to certain groups of vital medicines, which include
narcotic analgesics. The article assesses the availability of these drugs in the Chui region with a high population
and a high incidence of oncology in the republic. The purpose of the study was to assess the physical and economic availability
of narcotic analgesics. Material and methods of research: Desk and field studies were carried out, a number of
regulatory legal acts and a survey among pharmacists were studied, with questions about the assortment, pharmacies dispensing
narcotic analgesics and other factors that affect the level of availability of drugs in this group. Results of the
study and conclusion: Strong narcotic analgesics are sold only in 5 pharmacies throughout the region. Lowest availability
in Kemin, Suusamyr. Of the 25 pharmacies participating in the sale of preferential prescriptions for SGBP, only 5 pharmacies
sell strong narcotic analgesics. Morphine (in the form of short-acting tablets and injectable solution) is fully covered
by the SGBP for cancer patients at the outpatient level. The amount of reimbursement for the tablet form of tramadol
is fully covered, and for the injectable form, on average, 73.1% - 76.5% of the cost, and the remaining 26.9% - 23.5% is paid by the patient himself. Fentanyl patches are not covered under the RCA and cost the patient on average 7,562 somsper month.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Anti-atherogenic effects of dimethyldipyrozolylselenide
Authors: Solupaeva L.V.
Pages: 18-21
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The study shows the effect of the biologically active additive «Selecor» on lipid metabolism in the blood of
persons of extreme professions. It was revealed that the use of «Selecor» tablets containing selenium at a dose of 20 mcg,
two tablets for 21-30 days causes a significant decrease in the level of cholesterol and its precursors in the blood, which
indicates the antiatherogenic effect of «Selecor» and allows us to recommend it as an additional means of prevention and
treatment of patients with atherosclerosis.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Antigen-specific proliferative activity of b-lymphocytes in reactive arthritis of the rogenital form
Authors: Irisov A.P.
Pages: 92-97
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In this work, the significance of antigen-specific proliferative activity of B-lymphocytes (AGPABL) in various
clinical variants of reactive arthritis (ReA) is considered. A positive result of AGPABL was found in 100% of ReA patients,
only in 45.5% of ankilosing spondylitis (AS) patients, only in 19.2% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and in 14.3%
of osteoarthritis (OA) patients, respectively, and in no case in healthy individuals. The AGPABL index in ReA patients
with II and III degrees of activity was significantly higher compared to the I degree of activity. The level of the AGPABL
index in patients with ReA with a chronic course was significantly higher compared to the protracted and acute course
of the disease. The value of AGPABL in ReA with a minimal degree of activity is significantly higher than in patients
with OA, AS and RA.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Antiviral therapy of liver cirrhosis in the outcome of chronic viral hepatitis C
Authors: Tashpolotova A.Sh., , Murzakulova A.B. , Tashov K.E. , Jumagulova A.Sh. , Ergeshova A.B., Kochkorbekova S.K., , Abdybachaeva M.M.
Pages: 79-88
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The work presents the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with liver cirrhosis in the outcome of
chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV).
For liver cirrhosis in the outcome of chronic HCV, the early symptom is hepatomegaly with minimal clinical symptoms (Child-Pugh class A). Child-Pugh class B is characterized by asthenovegetative syndrome, splenomegaly,
nosebleeds, and dyspeptic symptoms. Child-Pugh class C is manifested by hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, edematous ascitic syndrome, and bleeding from esophageal varicose veins.
In the functional parameters of the liver, violations of protein-synthetic function, cytolytic activity and mesenchymal-inflammatory syndrome were detected, the severity of changes was observed in class C liver cirrhosis. Hepatocarcinoma screening showed an increase in the frequency of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) elevation as the pathological
process progressed. The effect of the 1b genotype of HCV on the high frequency of AFP increase (17±2.5%,
p<0.001) was revealed.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Antiviral therapy of liver cirrhosis in the outcome of chronic viral hepatitis C
Authors: Tashpolotova A.Sh., , Murzakulova A.B. , Abdikerimova M.M., , Sholpanbai Uulu M., Fesenko N.V., Sarkina A.K.
Pages: 89-97
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The article describes clinical studies and antiviral therapy of patients with cirrhosis of the liver in the outcome of
chronic viral hepatitis C. The safety of the inclusion of direct-acting antiviral drugs (sofosbuvir + daclatasvir +
ribavirin) in the scheme of antiviral therapy of patients in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver in the outcome of
chronic viral hepatitis C, class A according to Child-Pugh is proved. The use of direct-acting antiviral drugs in patients with cirrhosis of the liver in the outcome of HCV with HCV 1-genotype, indicates a high efficiency and satisfactory tolerability of this treatment regimen. A complete virological response was registered in 96.2% of patients.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
APOPTOSIS OF CELLS. BIOLOGICAL S
Pages: 9-12
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
APOPTOSIS OF CELLS. THE BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND ITS
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PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Aspects of the organization of cardiac surgery for newborn children at the Center for Perinatology and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
Authors: Bodykov G.Z., Bozhbanbaeva N.S., Sepbayeva A.D., Yesenova S.A.
Pages: 113-120
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The article presents the organizational structure of the pediatric cardiac surgery service and the results of a detailed
analysis of indicators of infant morbidity and mortality from congenital heart defects at the Center of Perinatology
and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery for 9 months of 2019.
The cardiac surgery unit consists of two structural units - the department of anesthesiology, resuscitation, intensive
care for pediatric cardiac surgery (total 6 beds) and the department of pediatric cardiac surgery (total 21 beds).
Equipped with high-tech equipment, modern effective perinatal technologies have been introduced, optimal conditions
have been created for nursing sick newborns and premature babies with congenital heart defects. At the same time,
the article reflects the key problems, the solution of which can help to reduce the morbidity and mortality of children
from congenital malformations. Late prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations occurred in 17.5%. The quality
of prenatal screening suffers in some regions and in private health centers. To improve the mortality situation in children with congenital heart disease, it is necessary to monitor prenatal screening in the regions, with the subsequent
solution of the issue of delivery in the CP and DKH. These measures will make it possible to bring the transportation
of the newborn closer to the level 3-4 cardiac surgery centers in order to provide timely cardiac surgery and increase
the survival rate of these patients.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Assessment of long-term dynamics of cancer morbidity and mortality in long-term Kazakhstan using autoregressive models and an integrated moving average
Authors: Baiyzbekova D.A., Erembaeva A.A. , Ismailova A.D.
Pages: 106-112
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Oncological diseases are one of the main causes of high mortality and disability of the population. More than 12 million new cases and 7 million deaths are reported annually [1]. Object of study: indicators of morbidity and mortality
from cancer. Purpose: Estimation of long-term dynamics of cancer morbidity and mortality using autoregressive
models and integrated moving average. Methods and approaches. The method of autoregression and the integrated
moving average (ARIMA) was used. The research materials were data of the Statistics Agency of the Republic of
Kazakhstan regarding morbidity and mortality from cancer for the period 2005-2014 (120 months). Statistical analysis
was carried out using SPSS, version 20.0. Results. In the framework of the Program on Development of Oncologic
Care in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2012-2016, there was a plan for the introduction of screening programs for
early detection of cancer in Kazakhstan in the period from 2011 to 2016 [2]. An assessment of the impact of the Program on cancer morbidity and mortality revealed the following. According to the ARIMAmodel, after the introduction
of the Program, a monthly increase in the incidence rate, equal to 0.57 cases per month, was observed. Obviously,
this is due to improved detection of cancer. For mortality rates, a monthly decrease equal to 0.25 cases per month
was observed. The decrease in mortality proves that the incidence rate increased due to the detection of cases of
disease in the early stages, which led to timely medical examination and treatment of patients.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Assessment of risk factors for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in healthcare workers: a case-control study, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 2020
Authors: Alymkulova V.A., Zikriarova S. M., Otorbaeva D.S.
Pages: 137-142
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Introduction. Despite coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mitigation measures implemented in Kyrgyzstan hospitals,
3,173 healthcare workers (HCW) had been diagnosed with COVID-19 by September 2020, amounting to 17% of
all COVID-19 cases. We aimed to identify risks for COVID-19 among HCW exposed to COVID-19 patients in Bishkek.
Methods. We conducted a nested case-control study of HCW in six hospitals with high COVID-19 incidence among
HCW using incidence-density sampling. HCW in the national COVID-19 registry with SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive and
SARS-CoV-2 IgG-negative results June 2020-May 2021 were recruited as cases if exposed to COVID-19 patients <14
days. Controls were randomly selected among HCW concurrently working at the same hospitals with SARS-CoV-2 PCRand
IgG-negative results. We collected sociodemographic, work, clinical, and laboratory information, and used logistic
regression to identify factors significantly (p<0.05) associated with COVID-19.
Results. A total of 511 people were included in the study, of which 128 cases and 383 controls. Out of 511 participants:
454 (89%) women and 383 (75%) participants under the age of 50. Of the participants, 118 (92%) cases and 348 (91%)
controls lived in a hostel (not at home) during the shift. Comorbidities were noted in 44 (34%) cases and 56 (15%)controls. According to the results of the analysis, testing for the tightness of the respirator, sharing a hostel for shift work
with other medical workers and the presence of comorbidities served as risk factors for the disease.
Conclusions. Results suggest need for increased quality assurance of and training in correct fitting and donning of personal
protective equipment, especially respirators, and improved communication for HCW promoting personal responsibility
in protecting staff, patients, and themselves.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Assessment of risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia of women at reproductive age
Authors: Akmatbekova Zh.S., Muzaparov M.S., Kibets E.A., Abaeva T.A.
Pages: 75-81
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Introduction. Endometrial hyperplasia is an abnormal proliferation of the endometrium with an increase in the
glandular component relative to the stroma. Hyperplasia is a precancerous disease. There are no official statistics on the
incidence of endometrial hyperplastic processes in the Kyrgyz Republic
The aim of the study - to determine the prognostic value of risk factors for the development of endometrial hyperplasia
and, on the basis of clinical and anamnestic data, to identify a group of women who are more likely to develop endometrial
hyperplasia.
Materials and methods. A total of 151 multiparous women of reproductive age were examined, including 71 patients
with endometrial hyperplastic processes and 40 healthy women. The average age of women is 28.6 ± 5.7 and 30.9 ± 6.5,
respectively. An assessment was made of the influence of risk factors such as overweight, increased anxiety, inflammatory
diseases of the pelvic organs, extragenital diseases, viral infections on the development of this pathology in multiparous
women of reproductive age in Kyrgyzstan.
Results. In women with HPE, infertility was more often observed 17% and 2.88%, respectively, lipid metabolism disorders
were 65% and 21% in healthy women, women of the main group predominate by 3 times in the number of spontaneous
miscarriages, inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs were more often noted, 65, 71% of women with HPE had a
high level of anxiety, in contrast to 12.20% of the main group
Conclusions. A retrospective study of the case histories of 71 women with a verified hyperplastic process in the endometrium
was carried out. The control group consisted of 80 women without endometrial pathology, observed in the
clinic. Comparative analysis included the study of risk factors based on obstetric and gynecological history and somatic
status. Patients with menstrual dysfunction, metabolic processes and chronic diseases are at risk of developing a hyperplastic
process in the endometrium.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Assessment of the dynamics of tuberculosis incidence among specialists with higher medical education in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Abdylaeva G.M., Kadyrov A.S., Ahmatov M.B.
Pages: 126-130
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Over the analyzed 12 years, this indicator of the incidence of tuberculosis has a statistically significant upward
trend – from 54.9 to 59.2 p <0.001. The incidence of tuberculosis among employees of medical organizations is 51.2-
51.3 thousand specialists, primary health care physicians have a statistically significant trend in the incidence of tuberculosis-
60.2 - 49.7 and only in anti-tuberculosis institutions (ПTO)-274.8-84.3. Despite the active implementation of
infection control measures in all medical organizations over the past 12 years, there has not been a significant decrease
in the incidence of tuberculosis in organizations of the general medical industry, there is a downward trend in 24.3 cases
of tuberculosis in 2019 compared to 274.8 cases in 2008.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Assessment of the effectiveness of arterial hypertension control at the primary healthcare level in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Amelin E.Yu. , Tolebaeva A.A., Duishenalieva M.T., Arykova A.T., Usubaliev A.O., Altymysheva A.T., Polupanov A.G.
Pages: 73-84
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Introduction. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A special place in the
structure of CVD is occupied by arterial hypertension (AH), which is the leading factor in the mortality of cardiac
patients. In the Kyrgyz Republic the prevalence of hypertension in recent decades has increased by 40-50%, and according to the epidemiological studies INTEREPID and STEPS is 44-46%. Mortality from CVD(including hypertension) according to reports from the Center for Electronic Health KR (CEZ) in 2019 accounted for 51% of total
mortality.
Aim of the study: development of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of control of arterial hypertension at the
primary healthcare level in the Kyrgyz Republic. Material and Methods. The outpatient cards data processing for 2019 of all assigned patients of the Pervomaisky
district of Bishkek, approved by the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic (CIF outpatient, form No. 025/y),
was carried out. The indicators were analyzed using the SPSS Syntax software adapted for e-health. The p<0.05 value
was taken as the threshold level of statistical significance.
Results. The detection rate of arterial hypertension was 2,69% in relation to the entire assigned population, of which
men –1,78% and women –3,45% (p <0,001). Patients with hypertension under the age of 40 were 1,9-3,3%. The proportion of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure was measured 2 or more times a year was more than 90% for
all FMCs; in FMCs № 3, 7, 14 and 16, the proportion of patients with hypertension who assessed the total cardiovascular risk was 56,5%, 94,7%, 98,3% and 89,3%, respectively. Drug therapy for hypertension was prescribed in 73,6%
of patients, and the effectiveness of hypertension control among patients was 45%.
Conclusion. To assess the effectiveness of hypertension control at the PHC level, it is proposed to use 2 main indicators: an indicator that allows assessing the effectiveness of hypertension control at the healthcare facility level, that
is, the number of patients with hypertension who have reached target BP values in relation to all patients with hypertension who visited this facility during the calendar years, and an indicator of the effectiveness of hypertension control
at the subnational level, i.e. indicator of detectability of AG.2
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Assessment of urination disorders in postmenopausal women
Authors: Kozhonaliev Т.Z., Zhumagaziyev T.S., Dzhanuzakova N.E., Turgunbaev T.E.
Pages: 62-66
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The problem of urination disorders occupies one of the leading positions in the structure of "estrogen deficiency
diseases" in postmenopausal women. In this paper, the authors show a comprehensive assessment of the main forms of
urination disorders in postmenopausal women. The purpose of the study was to analyze urination disorders depending
on the frequency of exacerbations of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Material and research methods. A prospective
study was conducted to analyze urination disorders and the nature of pain syndrome depending on the frequency of exacerbations
in 150 patients with cystitis in the postmenopausal period. Results of the study and conclusion. In patients
with cystitis in the postmenopausal period, in 45.4% of cases, there are from 1 to 4 exacerbations per year, in 37.3%
cases from 4 to 8 exacerbations per year, in 17.3% of cases more than 8 exacerbations per year are noted. With an increase
in the frequency of exacerbations, the average volume of micturitions decreases by 1.5 times, the average number of
micturitions per day increases by 1.5 times, and the number of nighttime urination increases by 2 times, depending on
the frequency of exacerbations of the disease. Expressiveness pain syndrome during urination in patients with cystitis in
the postmenopausal period increased by 1.5 times and 1.9 times, depending on the frequency of exacerbations, more than
8 times a year.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
ASSOCIATED OSTEONEURAL ABNORMALI
Pages: 52-56
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Biochemical justification of the Covid-19 impact on the state of hyaluronic acid in the alveoli of the lungs
Authors: Uspeeva A.E., Makhmudova Z.A., Taalaibekova M.T., Baatyrova N.J.
Pages: 152-159
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When looked at the latest news for 2021, we can see that tens of millions of people have contracted the coronavirus.
More than a million people have died or are facing long-term health effects from the virus. The review article is devoted to the study of the biochemical specificities of changing the algorithm of hyaluronic acid in the alveoli of the
lungs with Covid-19. An analysis of the literature covering the problem to date is carried out. On computed tomograms, which do each patient with suspected coronavirus, lucent areas are noted - “ground glass” syndrome, that
contain liquid. So, the analysis of the literature showed that the coronavirus damages the membrane (membranes) of
the alveoli, which causes the outpouring of hyaluronic acid from them. A group of scientists assume that hyaluronic
acid is the leading cause of death in severe Covid-19 lung infections. The study showed that COVID-19 demonstrates
a high level of proinflammatory of cytokines in the affected alveoles and in endothelial cells of blood vessels, in addition to increasing neutrophil extracellular traps that activate hemostatic factors. Consequently, thrombosis in the
pulmonary microcirculation leads to an increase in respiratory failure. The article further describes the role of
hyaluronic acid and the concept of “bradykinin storm” in the development of respiratory failure and the therapeutic
effects of COVID-19 heparin. Scientists have found that in addition to the anticoagulant effect, heparin can bind to
the “spike” protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and function as a competitive inhibitor for the entry of viruses, thereby
reducing the infectivity of the process [1].
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ANIMALS WITH URANIUM REFUELING ON THE BACKGROUND OF HERPES INFECTION
Pages: 110-115
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Birth defects prevention
Pages: 83-85
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
BRAIN ABSCESSES: EPIDEMIOLOGY, E
Pages: 8-10
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Brief epidemiological characteristics of food botulism in the Kyrgyz Republic fnd Osh region at the present stag
Authors: Salieva S. T.
Pages: 96-103
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The article presents data on the analysis of the incidence of foodborne botulism in the Kyrgyz Republic and Osh
region involving 230 people. The epidemiological features of the disease as a result of the use of homemade canned
compotes, jam, vegetable salads, cucumbers and tomatoes are shown.
There were 87 males (37.8%) and 143 females (62.2%), grading age groups: 20 (8.7%) under 14, 25 (10.9%) 15-19,
67 (29.1%) 20-29, 42 (18.3%) 30-39, 35 (15.2%) 40-49, 24 (10.4%) 50-59, and 17 (7.4%) 60 and over. The mortality
rate in foodborne botulism averaged 5.30.9% with fluctuations from 0 to 13.8%. Mortality rates do not correlate
with the highest incidence rates, which is confirmed by statistical data: the correlation coefficient (r) is -0.6
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
BRONCHOECTASIS IN CHILDREN
Pages: 84-87
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Cardiospecific enzymes as markerCardiospecific enzymes as markers of the course of cardiac necrosis in high altitude conditions and during readaptation to low altitude with the use of mildronate
Authors: Makhmudova Z.A., Taalaibekova M.T.
Pages: 125-132
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This article is devoted to the study of the effect of mildronate on the course of myocardial necrosis during the adaptation
of experimental animals to high altitude conditions and readaptation to low altitude conditions on the 30th day. We
found that after treatment with mildronate during 10 days, the content of creatine phosphokinase - MB (CPK-MB), troponin
T (TrT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the cardiac form of the protein binding fatty acids (PBFA) in the blood
serum of animals with simulated cardionecrosis on the 30th day of adaptation and readaptation were significantly reduced.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Causes of decompensation of chronic heart failure in a specialized city hospital
Authors: Pyrikova N.V. , Osipova I.V. , Mozgunov N.A.
Pages: 29-40
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Research objective. To carry out the analysis of the causes of decompensation of chronic heart failure (CHF)
in patients hospitalized in the therapeutic department within a year.
Materials and methods. Design is a one-time retrospective study. The analysis of the disease histories of patients
admitted to the therapeutic department due to decompensation of CHF was performed. The specially developed
protocol of the study recorded gender and age parameters, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, clinical data,
diagnosis upon admission, conducted therapy at the outpatient stage before the present hospitalization, data of
laboratory and instrumental methods of study were noted, the index of comorbidity was calculated.
Results. One hospitalization per year with decompensation of CHF was observed in only 13.1% of patients, 2-
3 hospitalizations per year - 62.0%, 4 or more hospitalizations - in 24.9% of patients. At the same time, 47.1%
of patients at the outpatient stage did not follow the doctor's recommendations for medical treatment, 75.1% -
non-drug measures and self-control. 89.9% of patients took blockers of the reninangiotensinaldosterone system,
21.5% - beta-adrenergic blockers, 27.9% - mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. As the main diagnosis, 92.3%
had hypertensive disease, 58.6% - atrial fibrillation, 33.7% had myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus was
noted in 31.6%, angina of effort - in 21.5%; chronic kidney disease stage 3 and above was established in 64.6%
of patients; 79.9% had a comorbidity index of five or more. At the time of hospitalization, functional class (FC)
II of CHF was found in 9.4%, FC III - 70.4%, FC IV - 20.2% of patients. Most of the patients had a conserved
release fraction (RF) - 46.1%, intermediate RF - 33.3%, reduced RF - 20.6%. Among hospitalized patients with
decompensation of CHF, male patients constituted 41.4%, women — 58.6%, 90.6% were elderly and senile people. In comparison with men, women were less likely to have smoking (by 66.6%) and alcohol consumption (by
60.0%), sufficient physical activity (by 25.6%), overweight and obesity (by 21.4%).
Conclusion. The analysis will allow planning and development of complex measures aimed at optimizing the
provision of medical care to patients with CHF in the conditions of a large specialized hospital.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Causes of melаsma
Authors: Kurbanova D.Ch.
Pages: 47-53
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Introduction. The relevance of the study of melasma is determined by the location of pathological areas on the
skin of the face, which being a cosmetic defect causes social maladaptation in society, reduces the quality of life. Melasma
is a common disease manifested by the formation of hyperpigmented spots. The development of hyperpigmentation is
associated with various etiological and pathogenetic factors. According to some authors, the causes of melasma may be
hereditary predisposition, increased sensitivity to ultraviolet rays, pregnancy, region of residence, skin phototype, ultraviolet
radiation, taking hormonal drugs and a number of concomitant pathologies. Given the high prevalence of melasma,
it is extremely important to study the causes of melasma development to determine treatment tactics. The aim of the study
is to identify the causes of melasma in patients who applied to the DIVA EFFECT cosmetic clinic with hyperpigmentation
from 2018 to 2020 with melasma, according to a specially developed questionnaire. Materials and methods. 176 patients
with melasma were surveyed. Sociological survey, statistical method of research were used. Results. According to the
study, it was revealed that among patients, cases of melasma with a moderate severity were more often identified. The
main causes were pregnancy and childbirth, exacerbation of chronic diseases and exposure to sunlight. At the same time,
hormonal drugs for more than 3 years were taken by patients with manifestations of moderate and mild melasma. Conclusions.
The identified causes of melasma in patients is the basis for determining treatment tactics that contribute to improving
their quality of life.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Causes of pseudo-resystance of patients with epilepsy in
Authors: Molchanova O. А.
Pages: 60-65
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The main causes of epilepsy resistance in general as diseases and factors contributing to the development of «noncurable
» epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are listed. The analysis of a group of patients with epilepsy
and their dynamic observation highlights the most common causes of pseudo-resistance.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Change in the structure of hospitalization of patients with acute vascular diseases
Authors: Khorev N.G., Beller A.V., Chichvarov A.A.
Pages: 21-24
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Venous thromboembolic complications (VTEC), which include deep vein thrombosis (DVT), subcutaneous vein thrombosis (SVT, thrombophlebitis) and pulmonary artery thromboembolia (PATE), remain a critical
clinical problem for many decades, which concerns a patient with any pathology and doctors of all specialties.
The authors consider a change in the hospitalization structure of patients with acute vascular diseases and prove
an increase in arterial embolias and an increase in severity of acute ischemia.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Characterization of a phenylpyrrole derivative fungicide in an acute oral  toxicology study in rats
Authors: Erastova O.V., Sinitskaya T.A.
Pages: 49-53
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Introduction. Fungicides, whose share is steadily growing, are used in agriculture to combat fungal infections of agricultural plants. However, for greater efficiency, in practice they should be applied taking into account the agrobackground of the floor. Phenylpyrrole derivatives are recognized as highly effective fungicides. At the same time, phenylpyrroles are chemical derivatives of pyrrolnitrin, a secondary metabolite produced by some bacteria from tryptophan. Phenylpyrroles inhibit all stages of fungal development, spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelium growth.
The purpose - Characterization of a phenylpyrrole derivative in an acute oral toxicology study in rats. To achieve the goal, it was necessary to determine the parameters of acute oral toxicity (LD50).
Materials and methods. Male white rats served as the test system in the acute experiment. In an acute experiment on rats, the following dose (in terms of body weight) of phenylpyrrole was tested - 5000 mg / kg.
Results. In an acute experiment with a single oral administration of the test compound at a dose of 5000 mg/kg of body weight, brown staining of urine, tail and coat was noted in rats. In this case, the death of animals was not noted during the entire period of observation.
Conclusions. Based on the studies carried out and in accordance with the "Hygienic Classification of Pesticides by Hazard", it was found that the phenylpyrrole derivative, according to the criterion of acute oral toxicity, belongs to low-hazard compounds (hazard class 4): LD50 for male rats, orally, is more than 5000 mg /kg of body weight.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Characterization of a phenylpyrrole derivative fungicide in an acute oral  toxicology study in rats
Authors: Safandeev V.V., Beloedova N.S., Poroshin M.A., Bogdanova A.V., Sinitskaya T.A.
Pages: 54-58
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Introduction. Fungicides, whose share is steadily growing, are used in agriculture to combat fungal infections of agricultural plants. However, for greater efficiency, in practice they should be applied taking into account the groback ground of the floor. Phenylpyrrole derivatives are recognized as highly effective fungicides. At the same time, phenylpyrroles are chemical derivatives of pyrrolnitrin, a secondary metabolite produced by some bacteria from tryptophan. Phenylpyrroles inhibit all stages of fungal development, spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelium growth. The purpose - Characterization of a phenylpyrrole derivative in an acute oral toxicology study in rats. To achieve the goal, it was necessary to determine the parameters of acute oral toxicity (LD50). Materials and methods. Male white rats served as the test system in the acute experiment. In an acute experiment on rats,the following dose (in terms of body weight) of phenylpyrrole was tested - 5000 mg / kg.
Results. In an acute experiment with a single oral administration of the test compound at a dose of 5000 mg/kg of body weight, brown staining of urine, tail and coat was noted in rats. In this case, the death of animals was not noted during the entire period of observation. Conclusions. Based on the studies carried out and in accordance with the "Hygienic Classification of Pesticides by Hazard", it was found that the phenylpyrrole derivative, according to the criterion of acute oral toxicity, belongs to low hazard compounds (hazard class 4): LD50 for male rats, orally, is more than 5000 mg /kg of body weight.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Characterization of propisochlor in an acute oral toxicology study in rats
Authors: Sinitskaya T.A., Safandeev V.V., Beloedova N.S., Poroshin M.A.
Pages: 43-48
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Introduction. As a result of the development of protective compositions for the treatment of agricultural crops, an original herbicide of selective action, propisochlor, was created. In order to justify and carry out activities aimed at protecting human health and the environment (which is the solution to some of the leading state tasks in the field of environmental protection and public health, as well as in order to comply with the requirements of international legislation, it is necessary to identify patterns of manifestation of the toxic properties of propisochlor in various regimens with the oral route of exposure, as well as to substantiate a number of hygienic regulations for safe production and its further use in agriculture. A special role in the development of such methods and methods belongs to the sanitary and toxicological study of new xenobiotics and generic molecules, as a result of which the values of threshold and subthreshold doses of pesticide preparations and their active substances are established.
The purpose - The purpose of this study was to characterize propisochlor in an acute oral sanitary-toxicological study on rats. To achieve the goal, it was necessary to determine the parameters of acute oral toxicity (LD50).
Materials and methods. Male white rats served as the test system in the acute experiment. In an acute experiment on rats, the following doses (in terms of body weight) of propisochlor were tested - 2000, 3000, 5000 and 6000 mg/kg.
Results. In an acute experiment with a single oral administration of the test compound, starting at a dose of 3000 mg/kg body weight or more, rats showed reduced motor activity, reduced food and water intake, trismus, ataxia, tremors and convulsions. The above symptoms are typical for substances that have a neurotoxic effect. However, this study did not investigate the levels of monoamine oxidases, monoamines, and neurotransmitters to explore the pathogenesis of symptoms. Starting with a dose of 3000 mg/kg of body weight, the death of animals was noted, which occurred mainly on the 1-3rd day after the administration of the test compound. The pathoanatomical picture was characterized by hemodynamic disturbances in the liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, as well as degenerative changes in the liver and catarrhal inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
Conclusions. In the pathogenesis of intoxication, damage to the liver and kidneys, metabolic disorders are also important. The study compound dose of 2000 mg/kg is the maximum tolerated dose, while the dose of 6000 mg/kg is absolutely lethal. The parameters of acute oral toxicity of the test compound were determined. In an acute experiment, the LD50 of propisochlor was established,which for male rats was 3745,4 ± 511,9 mg/kg, LD84 – 4999,3 mg/kg, LD16 – 2491,5 mg/kg.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Choice of diagnostic parameters for differential diagnostics of outputs in the pleural cavity at multispiral computed tomography
Authors: Borisenko O.V., Konovalov V.K., Leonov S.L., Lazarev A.F. , Kolmogorov V.G., Fedoseyev M.A.
Pages: 50-57
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Pleural effusions (PEF) are etiologically heterogeneous manifestations of complications of the patient's
pathology. MSCT was performed in 309 patients with PEF between the ages of 5 and 80. In all patients, diagnoses
were verified by morphological, bacteriological and clinical methods. The digital analysis of scans was carried
out with the help of the Radiologist+ program (Russia). The choice of nosology is the most influenced by parameters: the coefficient of correlation of the average slices of effusion density in the description of parabolic
dependence and the correlation coefficient of the root-mean-square deviation of effusion density in slices whendescribed by parabolic dependence. The parameters that can be excluded from consideration are: the correlation
coefficient of the average effusion density slices in the description of linear dependence and the correlation coefficient of the root-mean-square deviation of the effusion density in slices when described by linear dependence
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Chronic brain ischemia: from risk factors to cerebrovascular complications
Authors: Yusupov F.A., Nurmatov Sh.Zh., Amanbayeva G.T., Abdykalykova N.S., Yuldashev A.A., Abdykadyrov M. Sh.
Pages: 80-89
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The most important task of modern neurology is to develop and implement highly specific and sensitive biomarkers of
damage to the nervous system. Specific biomarkers of acute cerebral circulatory disorders, chronic cerebral ischemia,
neurodegenerative diseases (diseases: Alzheimer's; Parkinson's; Huntington's, etc.), demyelinating diseases of the central
nervous system (deviolithic de Devika, myelitis, multiple sclerosis), traumatic brain injuries are discussed
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of hepatitis A in children complicated with ascites
Authors: Alisherova A.Sh., Anarbayeva A.A., Sadybakasova G.K., Suranbaeva G.S.
Pages: 105-110
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The aim of the study was to study the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features of hepatitis A (HA) in
children complicated by ascites. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory, serological and instrumental research methods
were used. 29 children were under observation. The onset of the disease, in all patients, was acute, all periods of the
disease were clearly distinguished. Patients were admitted to the hospital in the jaundice period of the disease with ascites,
which was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound, was registered in young and older children. HA manifested itself in a
moderate and severe form. Already upon admission to the hospital, the condition of the patients was severe. Jaundice in
all patients was moderate, only in one case it was intense (total bilirubin 204 mmol/L) and was accompanied by skin
itching. The most common symptoms of the jaundice period were nausea, fever, vomiting, sleep disorders and anorexia.
The liver in patients with severe HA increased to 3,0-3,5-3,5 cm, was painful, soft-elastic consistency. Splenomegaly
was observed in 4 patients. Hyperalatemia was observed throughout the entire period of the disease, amounting to 1.25
± 0.1 mkat at the time of hospitalization. The duration of the jaundice period averaged 14.4 ± 3.1 days. In severe forms
of the disease, there were harbingers of an unfavorable course of the disease: sleep disorders, anorexia, nosebleeds.
The severe course of the disease in patients with HA requires hospitalization of patients in hospitals and a differentiated
approach is needed in terms of diagnosis, treatment tactics and patient management.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Clinical and epidemiological features of secretory diarrheas in children of early age
Authors: Bedelbaev M.K., Dzholbunova Z.K., Khalupko E.A., Imankulova A.S.
Pages: 59-64
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The paper gives the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of secretory diarrhea in 242 young children
who received treatment at the Republican Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital in Bishkek for the period 2016-2019. As
a result of the study, it was found that more often (64.0%) secretory diarrhea is observed in children of the first year of
life, less often (36.0%) in children older than 1 year. In almost every 2nd child, secretory diarrhea is caused by rotaviruses
(47.1%) and Escherichia (27.7%), less often (25.2%) other pathogens (norovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus,
proteus, klebsiella, etc.). The disease proceeded mainly (76.4%) in a severe form, especially in children of the first year
of life, with an unfavorable outcome in 1.2% of cases. The peak incidence of secretory diarrhea was noted in the winter
period, which is more typical for a viral infection. For the etiological interpretation of viral secretory diarrhea, an immunochromatographic
express test (57.7%) was used, and a study of feces for fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin was
carried out in order to exclude invasive intestinal infection. Determining the level of blood procalcitonin in secretory diarrhea
in young children shows the presence of a viral or bacterial infection in the patient. The use of these methods for
diagnosing secretory diarrhea will increase the level of etiological interpretation, differential diagnosis of diseases and
will help reduce the unreasonable use of antibacterial drugs, and prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Clinical and laboratory aspects in newborns and children under 3 months from the City Children's Clinical Hospital of Emergency Medical Care, 2018-2019, Bishkek
Authors: Sadybakasova G.K., Sabodakha M.A., Mustafina F.S., Bestuzheva G.R.
Pages: 151-157
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The work is devoted to the study of the spread of сytomegalovirus infection in newborns and children from one to 3
months old from the City Children's Clinical Hospital of Emergency Medical Care in Bishkek in the years 2018-2019
using ELISA. Diagnosis of CMV infection was carried out by determining specific CMV IgG antibodies (AB) in blood
sera using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA is based on the immune reaction of antigen
with antibody. In serodiagnosis, the substance to be determined is the specific immunoglobulin (Ig) of the patient. In
the diagnosis of сytomegalovirus infections, the method according to the instructions is usually used. For the study by
the ELISA method, blood from the lactic vein, obtained on an empty stomach, is used. The advantages of ELISA include
high sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, uniformity and suitability for mass examinations. The age structure of the
examined children was comprised of 407 sick newborns and children under 3 months of age in 2018-2019, of whom
163 (40.1%) were girls and 244 were boys (59.9%). Among the 407 children examined for сytomegalovirus IgG antibody
high titers were found (1:400 and 1:800) in 87 (46.0%), an average antibody titer of 1:200 in 124 (30,5%), indeterminate
result 1:100 – in 64 (15.6%), and seronegative result only in 32 (7.9%) children
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with COVID-19in Osh region of Kyrgyzstan
Authors: Esenalieva J.A., Brimkulov N.N., Sulaimanov Sh.A.
Pages: 39-45
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The aim of the work is to study the clinical manifestations, results of laboratory and instrumental methods of
diagnosis in patients of Osh region of Kyrgyzstan infected with SARS-CoV-2, depending on the severity of the disease.
Research material and methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 71 patients who were tested positive(RTPCR)
according to The United Clinical Hospital of Osh, The City Hospital of Osh, Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyzstan.
Duration: April - December,2020.Demographics, clinical data, co-morbidity, laboratory results and chest CT interpretations
were analysed.
Results. Patients, infected with SARS-CoV-2,most likely to have thrombocytopenia (p<0.001), lymphopenia (p<0.001),
leukocytosis (p<0.01),high levels of D-dimer (p<0.01), elevated fibrinogen (p<0.05), high AST and ALT levels
(p<0.001)as the severity of the disease increases. In severe cases, the volume of lung tissue injury exceeds 50%, corresponding
to KT3 (n=11) and KT4 (n=14).The risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection increases in the older age group
(p<0.001), related to the presence of associated diseases: Essential Hypertension (51.6%), Coronary Artery disease
(35.3%), obesity (20.5%).Patients were treated in accordance with the Ministry of Health Clinical PractiseGuidelines .
Conclusion.The clinical and laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 patients in the Osh region of Kyrgyzstan have fluctuated
regularly depending on the severity of the disease.All of the patients that we had examined, including the patients
with severe features, improved during the treatment and were discharged.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis of unspecified etiology
Authors: manbaeva L.A.
Pages: 48-54
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Introduction. An analysis of 12 cases of acute viral hepatitis of unspecified etiology is presented. In patients, negative
markers of viral hepatitis were obtained twice, the autoimmune nature was excluded by the absence of autoimmune
antibodies. Antibodies (IgG) to HSV (11 patients), EBV (9 patients) and CMV (7 patients) were detected. In patients
with recent infection with HSV (low avidity index), the clinic of acute hepatitis developed in young people against
a background of high immunocompetence, which led to recovery in a short time. Whereas, in the group of patients
with high avidity, the disease developed among the older age group with a longer course.
The aim of study. To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis of unspecified etiology.
Material and methods. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hepatitis of unspecified etiology were studied in 12
patients. All patients underwent a standard general clinical examination, which included an assessment of complaints
and physical examination data, biochemical blood tests, general clinical blood and urine tests, determination of viral
hepatitis markers by ELISA, and ultrasound of the abdominal organs. Antibodies to HSV, CMV, EBV were determined
by ELISA, as well as the avidity of IgG to HSV.
Results and its discussion. According to the RCIB for the period 2014 - 2020 the proportion of hepatitis of unspecified etiology ranged from 2.3% to 7.1%, averaging 4.39 ± 0.58. The observed patients had persistent symptoms of
yellowness of the skin and sclera, weakness, abdominal pain and loss of appetite. The study of biochemical parameters
showed a significant increase in "liver tests" in all examined patients. According to the ultrasound data from the liver,
all patients showed signs corresponding to changes in acute hepatitis. The diagnosis of viral hepatitis was excluded
after repeated negative tests for markers, which served as the basis for further search for an etiological factor and the
patients were examined for viruses of the herpes group (HSV, CMV, EBV), taking into account their hepatotropicity,
as well as for the presence of AMA and ANA to exclude an autoimmune nature. The results of examination for herpes
viruses showed the presence of IgG antibodies to HSV in 11 patients, EBV - in 9 and CMV - in 7 patients. Antibodies
to all three HSV, EBV and CMV viruses were found in 6 patients, to two HSV and EBV viruses - in 3 patients, one
patient had antibodies only in CMV. The hepatotropicity of herpes viruses (CMV, EBV, HSV) was confirmed by the
detection of their antigens in the hepatocytes of the examined patients.
Conclusions: In the etiological structure of viral hepatitis, a certain place can be occupied by viral hepatitis
caused by the herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, etc., the clinical picture of viral hepatitis
is similar in form, severity, course and outcomes;in case of laboratory exclusion of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, it
is necessary to continue laboratory studies to confirm the etiology of other viral hepatitis.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Clinical and neuroimaging parallels in herniated lumbar intervertebral discs
Authors: Yrysov K.B. , Kelieva L.Kh., Kanyev A.A., Karimov W.A.
Pages: 39-46
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Introduction. Recently, there has been a significant trend in the views of researchers and practitioners on the
pathogenesis, course, and biochemical changes in the elements of the spinal cord and ligamentous apparatus that
occur in osteochondrosis. This is due to the new opportunities that have opened up thanks to the advent of computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the arsenal of diagnostic tools. With the introduction
of CT and MRI, the reliability of information increased to 82-93%.
The aim of the study -to improve the diagnosis and increase the effectiveness of surgical treatment of patients
with disc hernias in the lumbar spine by studying the relationship of clinical manifestations and the results of the
applied research and treatment methods.
Materials and methods. The work includes the results of data analysis of a complex of clinical, diagnostic examinations and surgical treatment of 139 patients with neurological complications of herniated lumbar intervertebral
discs and received inpatient (operative - 116 (83.5%) and conservative – 23 (16.5%) patients) in neurosurgery departments. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 72 years.
Results. By using a highly informative MRI method, the dependence of the severity of pain syndrome and sensitive
disorders on the number of levels of disc damage, their localization in the diameter of the spinal canal and their
size was determined. The severity of pain and sensory disorders depended on the number of prolapsed discs. Moreover, the greater the number of intervertebral discs affected by the degenerative-dystrophic process, the greater
the likelihood of a pronounced and pronounced pain syndrome.
Conclusion. The most informative method of radiation diagnosis of degenerative-dystrophic processes in the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine is magnetic resonance imaging, which allows you to identify the number, location and size of herniated protrusions. The optimal algorithm for examining patients before deciding on
neurosurgical intervention for herniated lumbar intervertebral discs includes radiography of the lumbar spine, MRI
of the spinal cord and spinal column, and, if indicated, magnetic resonance myelography
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Clinical and structural changes in progressive myopia of a high degree
Authors: Usenko V.A., Kendzhaeva D.O., Chakieva A.R., Iuldashev A.M.
Pages: 154-162
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Introduction. According to WHO, myopia in children is 19 million people. people, in Russia, blindness and
poor vision from complications of myopia are stated in 12-18% of cases, worldwide - in 2.2 billion patients. Myopia is
projected to increase by 2050 in 4.8 billion people on the planet, according to studies, about 1 billion patients will have
high myopia.
The aim of the study- to study clinical and structural changes in progressive high myopia.
Material and methods. 145 people (290 eyes) were examined; with mild myopia - 45 patients (90 eyes); moderate - 49
patients (98 eyes) and 51 patients (102 eyes) with high myopia. To diagnose the type of ANS, neuropharmacological
tests of 0.1% adrenaline and 0.05% pilocarpine solution were performed. 92 patients (184 eyes) underwent an examination
of the cervical spine (CS) with various degrees of myopia with a study of hemodynamic parameters in the internal carotid
artery (ICA), vertebral artery (VA), ophthalmic artery (OA) using Doppler ultrasound (DOPSCAN). To determine the
products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in tears (according to the method of Gavrilov V.B.), 33 people (66 eyes) were examined.
Results. With a high degree of myopia at the age of over 14 years, sympathicotonia prevailed in 66% (26 eyes, 13 patients);
with mild myopia at the age of 6-10 years, the cholinergic system prevailed - in 62% (19 eyes, 10 patients) with the development
of myopia - in 41% (37 eyes, 19 patients). The development of a high degree of myopia was detected in 33.3%
with pathology of the CS III-IV stage. With disorders of hemocirculation in the VA and OA (22.6 cm/s ± 2.18 and 25.0
cm/s ± 2.1; with angiospasms RI up to 0.91 ± 0.16 in OA (p<0.05). In high myopia, a significant increase in the indicators Conclusion. Timely diagnosis and treatment of the main risk factors will help prevent the progression and disability of
the eyes in myopia.
ASSISTANCE TO A PRACTICAL DOCTOR
Clinical case of late diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis
Authors: Moidunova N.K., Kalmanbetova G.I., Usubalieva E.U., Omuralieva G.O.
Pages: 155-158
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Presented a clinical case of a student A.A., 23 years old with a diagnosis of infiltrative tuberculosis of the
upper lobes of the lungs. Abdominal tuberculosis: tuberculosis of the intestine, tuberculosis of the peritoneum, mesenteric
lymph nodes. Genital tuberculosis: bilateral tuberculosis salpingitis in the infiltration phase complicated by a small intestinal
fistula. Аctive stage. Ascites. MDRTB (HRZ).
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Clinical case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in woman after bariatric surgery
Authors: Mamytova E.M., Toktogaziev B.T., Kubatbekov R.K.
Pages: 124-129
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Introduction. Despite all the well-known advantages of bariatric surgery, there is a potential risk of complications such as stenosis in the resection area, anastomotic leaks, bleeding or infection, on the one hand, and complications associated with nutritional deficiencies, on the other hand.
The aim of the study is to early diagnostics and timely treatment of Wernicke's encephalopathy in patients with partial malabsorption syndrome.
Subjects and methods of research. A clinical observation of a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy after laparoscopic
longitudinal resection of the stomach (SLIV resection) is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by a low level of thiamine in the blood serum and a characteristic picture on magnetic resonance imaging.
Results. The next day after the start of vitamin B1 deficiency replenishment (along with vitamin B12, folic acid and
cerebroprotector Citicoline), the patient's condition quickly improved with a significant regression of symptoms of acute brain damage.
Conclusions of summary. Bariatric surgery is a less common cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, but may lead to it due to malabsorption syndrome. In patients undergoing bariatric surgery, clinicians should be vigilant about the possibility of EV and be able to diagnose and manage this complication.
ASSISTANCE TO A PRACTICAL DOCTOR
Clinical cases of late diagnosis of tuberculosis in young children
Authors: Galieva R. Sh., Teshebayeva A.K., Keresbekova A.B., Toktogulova S.
Pages: 149-154
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Young children represent a special risk group for tuberculosis. In young children, tuberculosis proceeds less
favorably than in older children, and is characterized by a tendency to generalize the infection. Most often, the generalization
of the process occurs in unvaccinated children. BCG vaccination protects young children from the most severe
forms of TB such as miliary TB and TB meningoencephalitis. Lack of alertness, insufficient knowledge of medical workers
on early detection of tuberculosis leads to late diagnosis of the disease and disability of children. Two clinical cases
of late diagnosis of young children from close family contact who developed severe forms of generalized tuberculosis,
one of them with a fatal outcome, are presented. Purpose of the study. To study the consequences of late diagnosis in unvaccinated
young children from close family contact. Material and methods of research. Clinical cases of children - girl
P. N. 1 year 6 months. with a diagnosis of acute miliary tuberculosis. MM-. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis. brain
coma. and a boy R.A., 2 years, 9 months old with a diagnosis of Acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis. MM-. PreSLU
by contact. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis. brain coma. Results. Due to the late diagnosis of tuberculosis in unvaccinated
young children, generalized processes developed from close family contact.Conclusion. The lack of alertness, insufficient
knowledge of tuberculosis among doctors leads to late diagnosis and the development of generalized processes
in unvaccinated young children.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
CLINICAL FEATURES OF MENINGIOMAS
Pages: 36-40
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Clinical significance of laboratory studies and neuroimaging methods in the diagnosis of concussion
Authors: Yrysov K.B. , Fayzullaeva G.A. , Mashrapov Sh.J.
Pages: 30-38
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Introduction. There is still a lack of complete unity in the views on the essence of brain concussion. In the literature
available to a wide range of specialists in recent years, there is no modern generalized description of concussion
and its diagnostic criteria. To fill this gap is the main task of this study.
The aim of the study - to determine the diagnostic value of protein S-100B level in blood serum at patients with
brain concussion.
Materials and methods. We conducted prospective assessment of protein S100B level in blood serum at 47 patients, received conservative treatment because of brain concussion. All patients underwent clinical-neurological
examination, brain CT and brain MRI, electroencephalography (EEG). The level of protein S100B in blood serum
was determined at once during patients’ admission, and then repeated evaluation - in 24 and 48 hours. The comparative analysis of data, received by clinical-instrumental examination and measurement of protein S100B level
at patients with brain concussion, was carried out.
Results. We revealed the increase of protein S100B level higher than normal value (more than 105 tg/l) at 11
(58%) patients during first 6 hours after trauma. The elevation of protein S100Blevel in blood serum showed that
there was structural damage of brain tissue (brain contusion). Brain CT revealed foci of brain injuries only at 73%
of patients with increased protein S100B level (n=11 patients), while MRI - at 100%. Brain CT and MRI revealed
no pathological areas in brain at patients with normal value of protein S-100B (n=8 patients).
There were no correlations between protein S100Blevel and type of brain injury, localization and volume of pathological focus and presence of cranial bones fractures. In addition, there was no significant correlation between
protein S-100B level and changes in EEG (р > 0.05).
Conclusion. Protein S100B is high-sensitivity biochemical marker of neural tissue damage. The elevation of protein S-100B level in blood serum at patients with mild head injury may be the additional criteria at determining
the diagnosis of brain contusion
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
CLINICAL-GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS
Pages: 30-32
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
COGNITIVE FEATURES IN SCHOOL-AGE
Pages: 77-79
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Common immunoglobulin Е level in multi-resistant tuberculosis patients with drug allergy
Authors: Dudenko E.V., Sydykova S., Mukanbaev K.M.
Pages: 52-57
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A high level of common immunoglobulin E (IgE) indicates a high likelihood of an allergic reaction.The aim
of the study: was to identify drug allergy (DA) by quantitative determination of common IgE in patients with multi-resistant
tuberculosis (MDR TB). Materials and methods. The object of the study was 80 MDR-TB patients with clinical
signs of DA. In the group of the standard treatment regimen (SR): 50/62.5% of patients (23/46.0% women and 27/54.0%
men, 34.9±2.8 years). In the group with an individual regime (IR): 20/25.0% of people (6/30.0% of men and 14/70.0%
of women, 36.0±3.5 years). In the short-term regimen group (SR): 10/12.5% of patients (2/20.0% men and 8/80.0%
women, 31.0±5.2 years). The study material is blood serum. The research method is solid-phase enzyme immunoassay.
Design: a prospective and retrospective study. For statistical processing, the SPSS16.0 software package was used.
Results of the study. The presence of DA at a high level of IgE was determined in 39/48.8% of MDR-TB patients. With
SR treatment, the highest level of IgE (423.2±62.7IU/ml) was noted in comparison with IR and SR. The concentration
of IgE in MDR-TB patients with DA is significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the level of IgE in MDR-TB patients
without DA. The concentration of IgE in MDR-TB patients with DA is significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the
level of IgE in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with drug sensitivity of mycobacteria with DA. Conclusion. The quantitative
determination of the concentration of common nonspecific IgE can be used in the detection of DA in MDR-TB patients.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Comparative analysis of legal regulation of medical and social assistance to the elderly population of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Kasiev N.K., Suleimanova G.T., Akmatov I.M., Kasymova R.O.
Pages: 16-23
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ABSTRACT
The analysis of the legal regulation of social protection and medical care for senior citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic
has been carried out. The content of these documents requires a uniform correct formulation, a clear definition in
order to unify, eliminate inconsistencies and contradictions of some provisions and terms used in the social sphere,
etc. To a certain extent, the complex of socio-economic measures of the state requires higher costs for medical care,
social and pension provision for disabled citizens of the country, with consideration of international practice. Today,
for older people, in conditions when their discrimination and stigmatization is a very common phenomenon, the country
lacks specialized gerontological services within the health care and social development system to improve their
quality of life.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Comparative analysis of modern methods of treatment of metastatic pleurisy in oncology
Authors: Beishembaev M.I. , Moldomusaev T.S., Lyagazov R.I.
Pages: 85-91
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The thoracic department of the National Center for Oncology and Hematology of the Ministry of Health and Social
Development of the Kyrgyz Republic conducted a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of combined and complex
methods of treating metastatic pleurisy in 90 patients, who were in hospital treatment from 2005 to 2018. During the
study, we found that that the rate of one-year, two-year and three-year survival in the control group was 66,6 ± 6.8%,
40 ± 5.7% and 20 ± 4.2% compared to the main group, where the one-year, two-three-year survival rate was 57.7 ±
6.5%, 33.3 ± 5.3% and 15.5 ± 3.7%, respectively
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Comparative analysis of neuroophthalmological symptomology in patients with  pituitary adenomas in preoperative and postoperative periods
Authors: Alik kyzy Eliza, Yrysov K.B.
Pages: 47-53
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Introduction. Due to the fact that the anterior visual pathway is in close proximity to the pituitary gland, neuro-ophthalmological symptoms are important in the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Objective. Improving the results of treatment of patients with pituitary adenoma by detecting neuro-ophthalmological symptoms in patients with pituitary adenoma before surgery and in the postoperative period, depending on surgical access (transcranial or endoscopic transsphenoidal). Material and methods. 170 patients with pituitary adenomas. There are 72 (42.4%) males among examined and 98 (57.6%) females. Age of patients ranged from 14 to 74 years. Technical aspects, advantages and limitations, outcome and dynamics in transcranial surgery and endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment of patients with pituitary adenomas were studied. Results. For the first time, a statistically significant dependence of neuro-ophthalmological symptoms in patients with pituitary adenoma on localization, predominant growth, and the size of the volume formation was revealed on significant clinical material. For the first time, the dynamics of neuro-ophthalmological symptoms after removal of endosuprasellar pituitary adenoma by various surgical approaches in identical groups of patients was compared. The dependence of the dynamics of visual functions after surgical removal of the tumor on the nature and severity of visual disorders before surgery, as well as on the stage of visual disorders, is analyzed. The factors causing deterioration of visual functions in the early and long-term postoperative period were determined. Conclusions. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery gives favorable results both in the removal of the tumor and in the control of secreting tumors compared with transcranial surgery.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Comparative assessment of perioperative analgesia methods in retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for aldosteronoma
Authors: Neymark M.I. , Kiselev R.V., Goncharov E.V.
Pages: 41-49
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Background. Anesthesiological provision for operations on the adrenal glands presents significant difficulties to date. This is due to the fact that the hormones of the cortex and adrenal medulla have a significant
effect on the state of basic vital functions and systems. Often, the complexities of anesthesia are aggravated by
concomitant obesity, steroid diabetes, secondary arterial hypertension, gross water-electrolyte disorders, which
determines the need for careful choice of the tactics of perioperative management.
Research objective. To study the influence of various variants of perioperative analgesia in retroperitoneoscopic
adrenalectomy on the perioperative period.
Materials and methods. A randomized examination of 57 aldosteroma patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Depending on the method of perioperative analgesia, patients were divided
into two groups. In group 1 (n-30), the operation was performed under the conditions of combined anesthesia
based on low flow inhalation of desflurane, only systemic administration of opioids was used for perioperative
analgesia; in group 2 (n-27), the operation was performed under the conditions of combined anesthesia based on
low flow inhalation of desflurane in combination with blockade of the fascial space of the muscle straightening
spine (ESP erector spinae plane) with 0.35% ropivacaine solution. The indicators of adequacy of anesthesia, central and peripheral hemodynamics were investigated, neuromuscular conductivity was monitored, the effectiveness of postoperative rehabilitation was evaluated, as well as the quality of postoperative analgesia, number of
postoperative critical incidents.
Results. It was revealed that surgical intervention with low flow inhalation anesthesia based on desflurane in
combination with ESP ropivacaine blockade contributes to faster post-narcotic rehabilitation, effective postoperative analgesia and fewer complications in the early postoperative period compared to combined anesthesia
with desflurane and systemic opioid perioperative analgesia. This contributed to significantly lower periods of
hospitalization of patients in group 2 of 96 hours (95% CI 86-103) compared to group 1 of 125 hours (95% CI
115-133) (p=0.036).
Conclusions. ESP blockade is an effective method of anesthesia in the perioperative period, it promotes faster
post-narcotic rehabilitation and shortening the duration of hospitalization after retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for aldosteroma compared to opioid analgesia.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Comparative assessment of prevalence of parenteral viral hepatitis among people with HIV and conditionally healthy in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Sattarova G. Zh., Nurmatov Z.Sh.
Pages: 98-104
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Introduction. HIV infection in combination with parenteral viral hepatitis today is a socially significant problem
all over the world. The incidence of HCV infection in HIV-infected people averages 20-40%, and more than 70% of
HIV-infected have serological markers of current or previous HBV infection. The aim of the research is to compare the
prevalence of parenteral viral hepatitis B and C among people living with HIV infection and among the healthy population
of the Kyrgyz Republic. Materials and methods. The materials for this study were the reporting data of Form No. 1
"Report on the movement of infectious and parasitic diseases" of the Department of Disease Prevention and State Sanitary
and Epidemiological Surveillance, personal data (questionnaires) of surveyed persons, blood serum of PLHIV who are
under dispensary observation at the Republican AIDS Center and healthy contingent living in Bishkek. Long-term reporting
forms No. 1 and personal data of the surveyed were studied by generally accepted statistical methods using the
MS Exel computer program. Blood serum samples from PLHIV and healthy contingent were examined for the presence
of markers of the causative agent of viral hepatitis B (HBc-IgG, HBsAg) and C (at-HCV) using a serological method of
research (ELISA). Results. The HBc-IgG marker was found among PLHIV in 50.5% (CI 95: 40.3-60.7), and among the
healthy population in 23.8% (CI 95: 21.2-26.4). The prevalence of markers of current HBV infection (HBsAg) in PLHIV
is high compared to a conventionally healthy population - 7.7% (CI 95: 4.5-10.9) and 3.1 (CI 95: 2.1-4.1) respectively.
And HCV infection is also widespread among PLHIV, it was 40.8% (CI 95: 34.8-46.8), and among the conventionally
healthy population 4.8% (CI 95: 3.5-6.1) statistically significantly different (P <0.01).Conclusions. The research results
show that the prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C among PLHIV is statistically significantly higher than among the
healthy population (P <0.001).
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Comparative estimation of effectievens of modern methods of treatment of metastatic pleurisies for patients by the malignant tumors of ovaries
Authors: Beishembaev M.I. , Lyagazov R.I. , Bairamukova R.A.
Pages: 117-123
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According to the International Association for the Study of Cancer (MAIR), more than 400,000 new cases of
malignant ovarian tumors are registered annually in the world, among which ovarian cancer accounts for about 60% and
more than 180,000 women die from them annually. Thus, with newly diagnosed common forms of malignant ovarian tumors,
accompanied by metastatic lesions of the pleural cavity, systemic chemotherapy with various options for intrapleural
therapy in most cases helps to achieve stabilization of the process with partial or complete regression of metastatic
pleurisy. A retrospective comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of combined methods of local and systemic treatment
of metastatic pleurisy in 60 patients with malignant ovarian tumors was carried out in the thoracic department of the Kyrgyz
National Center of Oncology and Hematology (NCOG). The patients were divided into 3 groups: the control group
included 20 (33.3%) patients who received systemic chemotherapy with symptomatic treatment. the main group included
18 (30%) patients who received systemic chemotherapy with intrapleural chemotherapy. an additional group - 22 (36.6%)
patients who received systemic chemotherapy with intrapleural sclerosing therapy using autoplasma as a biosolvent. our
study showed that the use of systemic chemotherapy in combination with intrapleural sclerotherapy using autoplasma as
a biological solvent contributes to the achievement of long-term stabilization of the process, increasing the 12-, 15- and
18-month survival rates by 31.8%, 18.1% and 13.6% compared to traditional systemic and topical treatment options, improving
patients' quality of life.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of postoperative pain relief in urological and surgical practice
Authors: Imankulova A.S., Chyngyshova J.A., Kabaev B.A., Tolbashieva G.U., Kozhomkulova K.A.
Pages: 54- 60
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One of the urgent problems of modern medicine is adequate anesthesia in the postoperative period. Inadequate
analgesia can cause unsatisfactory results of surgical treatment. For the relief of postoperative pain, priority is
given to medicines with maximum analgesic activity. The article presents the results of a study of the comparative
effectiveness of postoperative analgesia in urological and surgical patients based on the use of Nalbuk and Morphine
for the relief of acute postoperative pain of various degrees of severity. The assessment of the intensity of the pain
syndrome was carried out using a visual analog scale (VAS). It is shown that in the postoperative period in surgical
and urological patients, Nalbuk shows high analgesic activity, does not have a sedative effect and does not depress
breathing, which allows achieving better analgesia compared to traditional opiate analgesia with much better tolerability and with a significantly lower frequency of side effects.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Complex treatment of epididymal cyst
Authors: Usupbaev A.Ch., Kutbolsun uulu U., Kuzebaev R.E.
Pages: 46-52
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Introduction. In the scientific work, the analysis of the results of the examination of 55 men who applied to
the Republican Scientific center of urology at the National hospital of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz republic for
epididymal cyst. The circulation period falls on 2017-2021.
Purpose of the study. To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of patients with epididymal cyst using dissolving
preparations in the form of a solution of longidase (hyaluronidase) and sclerosant.
Materials and methods. The basis of this study included patients of reproductive age from 16 to 45 years, with a clinical
diagnosis of an epididymal cyst. The middle age of the examined patients was 33 ± 3 years. Complaints of patients upon
admission were taken into account. All men were examined by ultrasound. Ultrasound examination was performed using
the WED 9608 apparatus with a high-frequency probe and Doppler sonography. Testicular size, volume, shape, echogenicity,
and blood flow were assessed. Examined t a semen analysis. For all patients were performed surgical treatment according
to the author's method: "Method of combined treatment of cystic diseases of the epididymis", patent No. 2204.
Results of the study. The data on the condition of patients with an epididymal cyst before and after surgical treatment are
substantiated. A persistent positive trend was noted in the form of a decrease in pain symptoms in the postoperative
period, improvement of spermogram parameters in the form of quantitative and qualitative indicators as well as the absence
of infectious and inflammatory complications.
Conclusion. Thus, the analysis of the study showed that this method of surgical treatment is highly effective, which positively
affects the outcome of the disease and the quality of life of the patient.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
COMPLEX TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED DORSOPATHY WITH CHONDROPROTECTIVE DRUGS
Pages: 71-74
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Complex treatment of urethral strictures caused by scleroatrophic lichen
Authors: Usupbaev A.Ch., Kurbanaliev R.M., , Akylbek S.
Pages: 54-61
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In the Republican Scientific Center of Urology from 2015 to 2020, we analyzed the data of 42 men with
urethral strictures caused by scleroatrophic lichen (SAL). The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 77 years. Timely
treatment of this group of patients allowed us to avoid the use of surgical treatment to resolve the infravesical obstruction.
The correctness of the diagnosis and the choice of tactics for the treatment of stricture disease of the urethra contributes
to the restoration of the normal act of self-urination. The effectiveness of complex treatment of urethral strictures was
evaluated in terms from 3 months to 1 year. Objective of the study- to evaluate the effectiveness of the result of an integrated
approach to the treatment of patients with urethral stricture caused by scleroatrophic lichen. Material and methods
of research. In the structural units of urology of the Republican Scientific Center at the National Hospital of the Ministry
of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic, 42 men aged 17 to 77 years suffering from urethral stricture caused by scleroatrophic
lichen were examined. To verify the clinical diagnosis and determine tactical approaches to the treatment of urethral
strictures, monitoring of the details of the violation of the passage of urine from the lower urinary tract with an assessment
of the presence of complications and the effectiveness of the treatment was carried out. Results of the study.The data on
the state of urethral patency in patients with scleroatrophic lichen before and after treatment in the long–term treatment
period up to 1 year are substantiated. When prescribing complex conservative therapy and urethral augmentation with
uncomplicated and unstrained urethral strictures after 3-6-12 months, a persistent positive trend was noted in the form of
a decrease in symptoms of infravesical obstruction and infectious and inflammatory processes in the genitourinary organs. Conclusion. The accuracy in the verification of the diagnosis, the professional skills of the specialist and the correct
choice of the method of treatment of urethral strictures in scleroatrophic lichen positively affects the outcome of the
disease and the quality of life of the patient. After conducting a scientific study of the developed approach to the treatment
of patients with urethral stricture caused by scleroatrophic lichen, we came to the conclusion that its effectiveness is quite
high.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Comprehensive analysis of medical-biological and socio-demographic risk factors of tb development in HIV-infected patients
Authors: Bekbolotov A.A., Mamyrbaeva A.K., Abdrakhmanova E.D.
Pages: 131-137
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This article is devoted to the dynamics of morbidity and mortality from 2014 to 2018 from TB among the general
population and among patients with HIV infection in the Kyrgyz Republic. The number of HIV-infected patients
with tuberculosis, the proportion of patients at risk of TB infection among HIV-infected patients and the general population,
the percentage of HIV-infected patients who received tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis was determined using national
case records, state registers, data from departmental statistical reporting materials, data from TB and state statistical services,
as well as materials from countries' regular reporting to WHO and UNAIDS. The authors of the article also used information
from open sources: publications and databases of international organizations, program and internal
documentation of relevant institutions. The authors point to the influence of risk factors for the development of tuberculosis
in patients with HIV infection, as well as the effect of ART among patients with HIV infection and HIV/TB on the
incidence of tuberculosis.
PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION OR MEDICAL PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION
Continuing Medical Education on Emergency Medical Services Curriculum
Authors: Omukeeva G.K., Chubakov T.Ch. , Kurmanov R.A., Dushimbekova K.A.
Pages: 134-145
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Introduction. Quality Continuing Medical Education (CME) for healthcare professionals is instrumental for the successful Emergency Medical Services (EMF) healthcare system development. Development and implementation of
innovative and effective training programs, based on the principles of evidence-based medicine and the needs of
practical healthcare are of great importance.
Purpose of the study: analysis of the content and effectiveness of the developed comprehensive training programs
for CME on EMF.
Materials and methods. The study describes main approaches to the development of new curricula and different
types of programs, depending on the specialists’category. A comprehensive retrospective analysis of preclinical and
clinical training (monitoring and evaluation) on the progress of participants depending on the level of EMF provision
(primary and secondary level of healthcare organization), received courses, specialties was carried out. The results
of theoretical knowledge were assessed in the form of pre- and post-tests (paper form) and assessment of practical
skills at the preclinical level using various level manikins.
Study results: The development team (international experts, Kyrgyz State Medical Institute of Post-graduate training
and continuous education, teachers and doctors) developed and prepared training programs for EMS specialists,
which corresponded to the needs of practical health care. After intensive and innovative training, the knowledge
growth rate of all medical workers significantly increased compared to the data before training (pre-testing), depending
on the category of participants and the content of the training course. On average, the knowledge growth rate ranged
from 55,8% to 115,7%, depending on the category of specialists (the difference between the indicators is statistically
reliable, p<0.001). The results of the practical exam indicate that simulation based training contributed to the increase
in the level of mastering practical skills and abilities among Emergency Medical Service medical workers.
Conclusions.The use of newly developed and implemented training programs for EMF medical workers, based on
the principles of clinical modeling and problem-oriented training, contributed to the creation of a flexible system of
various complex standardized conditions for emergency conditions and allowed trainees to take an active part in
practicing EMF skills. As a result of the effective implementation of training programs, the level of knowledge, practical skills and abilities of medical workers have significantly improved.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Covid 19 associated ischemic stroke. Literature review and clinical case
Authors: Tairov B.M., Maanaev T.I., Narbekov I.M., Toktomametova A.U.
Pages: 25-30
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The authors conducted an analytical review of literature sources devoted to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of brain strokes against the background of coronovirus infection. The predominant pathogenetic mechanism of brain
strokes in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV was noted. The article presents a clinical case of a patient with a brain stroke,
which appeared in a young woman without risk factors for acute cerebrovascular accident on the background of an infectious process. In addition, many studies have found a decrease in the frequency of ischemic stroke in individuals with risk factors for brain disasters.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Criteria for assessing local recurrence of prostate cancer after HIFU-therapy
Authors: Neymark A.I., Tachalov M.A. , Neymark B.A., Levin V.P., Nozdrachev N.A.
Pages: 64-69
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A comprehensive examination and treatment of 240 prostate cancer patients was carried out. Ablation
of prostatic gland with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was performed, as this method is characterized
by high 5-year recurrence free survival in the treatment of localized forms and the possibility of reapplication.
HIFU-therapy allows achieving PG necrosis with minimal damaging effect on surrounding tissues.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Current state of diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer (literature review)
Authors: Toguzakova A.A., Kudaybergenova I.O.
Pages: 63-70
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Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in oncogynecology and continues to occupy the first place among the causes of female mortality from malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study - The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the completeness and significance of recent studies on cervical cancer for public health and scientific achievements, with the identification of areas that require further detailed study. Materials and methods. The review and data of modern literature on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cervical cancer are presented, with a summary of the key points of medical monitoring of patients with this disease. Results. The recommendations of researchers in recent years are presented, which can help oncogynecologists develop individual management tactics for each specific patient with cervical cancer and improve the quality of life of patients. Conclusions. Planning diagnostic and therapeutic measures in patients with background and precancerous diseases of the cervix continues to be an urgent task, the solution of which will increase the effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Detection of tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis in private healthcare  organizations using the IGRA test in Bishkek and Chui region
Authors: Duishekeeva А.B., Ahmatov M.B., Myrzaliev B.B., Kulzhabaeva A.A., Kadyrov A.S., Turdumambetova G.K., Akhmetova R.Kh., Usubalieva E.U.
Pages: 25-34
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Introduction. The problem of undetected cases of tuberculosis is raised annually in WHO global reports. A similar problem is emerging in the Kyrgyz Republic. Thus, according to official WHO reports for 2022 [1] the difference in the estimated number of detected cases and those actually detected was 46.9%.
Materials and methods: Purpose of the study: Study of the level of TBI determined by the QuantiFERON - TB test Gold Plus ELISA among persons who had household and close contact with a patient with active pulmonary tuberculosis identified in health care organizations in Bishkek and Chui region, performed in the private laboratory YRFA. The study is retrospective, secondary data was collected from the “Together against Tuberculosis” project of the Stop TB Partnership from 2021. The study received ethical committee approval.
Study results: a total of 100 studies were conducted using the QuantiFERON - TB test Gold Plus ELISA (QFT). Skin tests (Mantoux test and Diaskin test) were done to 87 children out of 92 (5 refused), Mantoux test was done to 84 children and Diaskin test was done to 3 children, the positive result was in 83 children. Of those positive by skin test, only 18 (20.68%) children had a positive QFT result and 69 (79%) with a negative QFT result. In 1 adult male, the QFT was positive. In 13 children who had contact with a patient with tuberculosis, active tuberculosis was confirmed (7 children with sensitive TB, 6 with drug-resistant TB). In 13 children taken for treatment, both the skin test and QFT were positive. The remaining 5 children, positive for QFT, who were in contact with a patient with a drug-resistant form of TB, were registered and observed, since no signs of active TB process were found, the children were diagnosed with tuberculosis infection.
Conclusion. Using the example of the private laboratory of URFA, other private healthcare organizations can make a significant contribution to the management of tuberculosis in our country. To do this, it is necessary to develop regulatory mechanisms for public-private partnerships in this matter.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Determinants of serum 25(OH)D indicators of Kyrgyzstan
Authors: Isupova A.A., Isupov R.V.
Pages: 34-39
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This article describes for the first time the determinants of fluctuations in the mean serum 25 (OH) D levels in
the indigenous population of Kyrgyzstan.
Relevance. Vitamin D is now receiving increasing attention. Deficiency of 25 (OH) D contributes to the development of
both skeletal (rickets, osteopenia, osteoporosis) and non-skeletal pathological effects (dermatoses, hypertension, obesity,
oncological, endocrine, autoimmune and infectious diseases). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels> 75 nmol / L, or 30 ng
/ mL, are essential for maintaining human health.
Objective of the study- to find out whether gender and seasonal fluctuations in UVR levels are determinants of vitamin
25 (OH) D deficiency among healthy indigenous people of Kyrgyzstan.
Material and methods. A pilot multicenter cross-sectional study of the serum 25 (OH) D level of the indigenous inhabitants
of Kyrgyzstan (41 ° N, 75 ° E; duration of sunshine 1700-2900 h / year) was carried out. The sample consisted of 218
people, of which 99 (45.4%) were men and 119 (54.6%) were women. The average age of the representative sample was
38 ± 1.0 (95% CI 36.0 - 40.1) years.
Results. The mean serum 25 (OH) D3 level in the total sample was 46.9 ± 1.1 nmol / L (95% CI 44.8 - 49.1 nmol / L),
which corresponds to a deficit (<50 nmol / L). At the same time, in men, the average indicator 25 (OH) D3 was 50.0 ±
1.5 nmol / L (95% CI 46.9 - 53.0 nmol / L), in women 44.5 ± 1.5 nmol / L ( 95% CI 41.5 - 47.5 nmol / L), p <0.013.
There were statistically significant (p <0.026) seasonal fluctuations in serum 25 (OH) D3 from 41.7 ± 2.3 (95% CI 37.1
- 46.4) in the spring to 50.0 ± 2.1 (95% CI 45.9 - 54.2) in the fall.
Conclusion. Regardless of statistically significant gender and seasonal fluctuations, as well as the geographic location of
the country (41 ° N, 75 ° E) and the duration of sunshine (1700-2900 hours / year.), The average serum 25 (OH) D3 does
not reach an adequate level (> 75 nmol / L).
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Development of integration processes and the legal framework of the eurasian economic union in the field of sanitary measures to ensure the health of the population of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union
Authors: Zhukova N.P., Karymbaeva S.T., Bokitko B.G., Kornakov D.V.
Pages: 158-164
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The organization of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) created 7 years ago in order to strengthen the economies of the member states, provided effective levers within the framework of public health, allowing to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population by reducing the risk of import and circulation of dangerous products, the spread of infectious and mass non communicable diseases (poisoning). The creation of the EAEU allowed
the sanitary and epidemiological services of the member states to effectively use their human resources, research potential, be on guard of public health and solve one of the most important state tasks - ensuring the sanitary and epidemiological
well-being of the population of the member states. The work carried out by the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC) - the permanent supranational regulatory body of the EAEU and by the authorized state bodies of the member states on the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population within the framework of integration processes and the contractual and legal framework in the field of sanitary
measures, and regulations adopted on their basis, make it possible to ensure effective control and an appropriate level of safety in the field of sanitary measures. It ensures the prompt exchange of information on identified dangerous products
between the authorized bodies of the Member States, promotes the removal of barriers to the movement of goods when applying sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, establishes general principles and approaches to determining responsibility for violations of acts in the field of sanitary measures. The ongoing work leads to the actualization of sanitary-epidemiological and hygienic requirements for product safety on the basis of scientific research, including the analysis of the risk of harmful effects on the human body of environmental factors, as well as the implementation of a risk-based surveillance model in the field of product safety for human health. The adoption of methodological documents and recommendations in the EEC is carried out on the basis of the results of scientific research, taking into account the principles laid down in the agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. All this and the further development of integration processes in the field of sanitary measures within the EAEU, allows the Kyrgyz Republic to be on modern, advanced positions in the application of SPS measures and the preservation of the health and life of each person and society as a whole.
PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION OR MEDICAL PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION
Development prospects S. Tentishev Asian Medical Institute
Authors: Selpiev T.T. , Koshmuratov A.G., Ashymov J.D.
Pages: 146-151
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The Asian Medical Institute named after Tentishev (AzMI) is located on the territory of Kant. The Institute provides
educational services to students of the Kyrgyz Republic, near and far abroad. Training is conducted in two languages, Russian and English. Most of the students come from India and Pakistan. The institute also offers residency
and postgraduate studies. The institute plays an important role in the economic life of the Chui region, creating
jobs, providing foreign students with housing, the teaching staff is provided with decent salaries, one of the highest
in the field of education. The testing center of the Ministry of Education tested all medical educational institutions
of the country for the quality of education and AzMI took first place in the republic, this fact suggests that this is
an indicator of the purity of education in AzMI. All structures of the institute are dynamically developing giving
priority to the quality of education. The quality of education lies in qualified teachers, a well-equipped academic
building, and an extensive library fund. Every year the institute develops and fulfills its mission in the field of education, the mission of AzMI is to implement educational programs that meet international standards through highquality training of competitive specialists, by integrating the best world practice in education, science and clinics,
based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. Thus, through professionalism, enthusiasm and long-term endurance, one of the most advanced vocational education institutions in the Kyrgyz Republic was formed in the
Chui region. The founder of AzMI is Erkin Satkynbaevich Tentishev
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Diagnosis and treatment of chronic herpetic stomatitis of the oral cavity (literature review)
Authors: Azimbayev N.M.
Pages: 141-146
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This review of the literature reflects information about the etiopathogenesis of chronic recurrent herpetic lesions
of the oral mucosa and the parotid region. Methods of diagnosis and treatment of chronic herpetic stomatitis by
various authors are described. Algorithms of local and general drug therapy of patients with this pathology are described.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Diaphragmatic hernia in childhood
Authors: Peredereev R.A., , OrozoevU.D., Samsaliev A.Zh.
Pages: 39-43
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Introduction. Diaphragmatic hernia is a combined malformation that affects both the organs of the respiratory
system, the cardiovascular system, and the organs of the digestive system.
The aim of the study- To study the case histories of children with diaphragm pathology who were treated in Children's
Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bishkek city
Materials and methods. An analysis was made of 73 cases of children with diaphragm defects, of which 69 (94.5%) received surgical treatment in the departments of emergency neonatology and thoracic surgery for the period 2012-2022.
Results. According to the localization of the defect in the diaphragm - hernia of the dome itself - 58 (79.5%), of which
12 (20.7%) had relaxation of the right dome. 46 (79.3%) children had hernias of the left dome, of which 36 (78.3%) were
false, 10 (21.7%) were true. Hiatus hernias - 13 (17.8%), and in 2 (2.7%) people - anterior hernias. In 8 (10.9%) people,
hernias appeared as a result of previous heart surgeries (congenital malformations of VSD-6, PDA-1, Tetralogy of Fallot-1), of which only 4 (50%) were operated on due to the development respiratory failure, and the rest were diagnosed
with relaxation
Conclusions. 1. The most common diaphragmatic hernias are hernias of the dome itself - 79.5% of the total number of
those examined. 2. In 5.5% of cases, children are not shown surgical treatment, because. Were a complication of previous
heart surgery. 3. 17.8% of children were identified in whom diaphragmatic hernias proceeded under the guise of other
somatic and neurological diseases, and therefore a routine x-ray of the chest cavity organs in 2 projections was recommended for vomiting syndrome, routine blood tests. 4. Mortality in children under 2 months was 11.6% of the total
number of operations.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
DIFFERENT MEDICAL IMAGING METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SARCOMAS OF BONE AND SOFT TISSUES
Pages: 20-25
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen in nasopharyngeal swabs by enzyme immunoassay using DIA®-SARS-CoV-2-Ag-R test system
Authors: Shevchuk A.A., Serdyuk V.G., Gorlov A.Yu., Kiseleva E.K., Golubovskaya O.A., Demchishina I.V., Chernenko L.N., Cousin I.V., , Spivak N.Ya., Favorov M.O.
Pages: 3-15
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The main goal of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of enzyme immunoassay for testing patients with
COVID-19. Serologic testing is one of the most accurate and highly efficient methods of screening for pathogenic
microorganisms. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used to detect specific antibodies in individuals at the early stages of COVID-19 infection, during the first 10 days of the disease. The advantage of DIA®-
SARS-CoV-2-Ag-R test system developed by our group in comparison with competing testing methods is that it
allows the most accurate detection of asymptomatic infected and contact individuals. We explored this property
of our test system in a prospective study, and also performed a quantitative comparison of the competing test systems
available in the market with DIA®-SARS-CoV-2-Ag-R. The safety of testing was ensured by the utilization
of the VLM-DIA transport medium, which has viralizing properties and allows to preserve protein structures for
analysis. The affordability of DIA®-SARS-CoV-2-Ag-R compared to competing testing methods allows to detect
SARS-CoV-2 in a bigger number of infected people. A positive result obtained with the DIA®-SARS-CoV-2-Ag-
R test system does not require confirmation by other methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The
analysis can be performed using both standard equipment for ELISA, and automatic open-type immunoassay analyzers
utilizing a validated analysis protocol. It is the presence of an "open" testing system with the availability
of a relatively simple sample processing technology that makes it possible to perform the analysis in healthcare
facilities of almost any level. In the present study we evaluated the sensitivity of DIA®-SARS-CoV-2-Ag-R in
comparison with competing test systems, analyzed the data obtained and revealed significant advantages of this
method for testing patients with COVID-19.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
DIZZINESS (LITERATURE REVIEW)
Pages: 15-19
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF MENINGIOMAS O
Pages: 40-43
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
EFFECT OF VASOTAN ON CARDIOINTER
Pages: 33-35
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
EFFECTIVE USE OF HIGH-DOSE PIRAC
Pages: 74-77
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Effectiveness of complex treatment of strabismic amblyopia in concomitant strabismus with vision disorder
Authors: Berdibaeva A.I.
Pages: 61-70
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The aim of the study- Analysis of the effectiveness of the complex treatment of strabismic amblyopia in concomitant strabismus with binocular vision disorder.
Material and method of treatment. A total of 100 patients (158 eyes) — 54 patients (86 eyes) with concomitant
divergent strabismus and 46 patients (72 eyes) — with convergent strabismus, were subject to treatment. Control
group - 10 people (20 eyes) with emmetropia. The average age up to 3 years is 2.4 ± 0.45 years, from 3 to 7 years
- 4.8 ± 0.07 and over 7 years - 8.3 ± 0.4. Strabismus angle up to 10° - 40 patients (80 eyes); from 11° to 15° - 25
patients (40 eyes), more than 15° - 35 (38 eyes). Hyperopic astigmatism – 69 patients (111 eyes), high-grade hyperopia – 31 patients (47 eyes). Mild amblyopia – 28 patients (40 eyes), moderate – 48 patients (84 eyes) and
severe – 24 patients (26 eyes). The complex therapy was based on a three-stage method: the first stage – the impact
on the pupillary-accommodative system with the determination of the pupil cycle time and (V) the speed of the
pupillary reaction, (color pulse therapy, “Focus”, “Relax” devices, Sidorenko vacuum glasses, home exercises. In
the second stage, the impact on the retinal cones – “Flower”, “Crosses”, “Spider” programs, quantum rays, occlusions and penalization. The third stage – restoration of the bifixation reflex: “Combination”, “Fusion”, “Trainer”
computer programs, nose drops according to the scheme 0.1% Semax solution.
Discussion of results. A decrease in the pupil cycle time from 1400±0.74 m/s to 900±2.08 m/s (P <0.01) was obtained; an increase in the V pupillary response from 1.5±0.17 mm/s to 2.8±0, 05 mm/s (P <0.01); increase in the
volume of absolute accommodation and the reserve of absolute accommodation up to 14.4±0.23D b 5.2±0.27D,
in the strabismus - 14.65±0.8 (P <0.05) increase in distance visual acuity to 0.83±0.12, in 72.2% of cases (68 patients) – the development of binocular vision.
Conclusion. The effectiveness of the complex method of strabismic amblyopia treatment is conditioned by the effect on all parts of the visual system.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Effects of aceclofenac at the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 and 4 in a patient with epididymal cyst
Authors: Usupbaev A.Ch., Kutbolsun uulu U., Kuzebaev R.E.
Pages: 16-20
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Introduction. In the scientific work, the analysis of the results of the examination of 116 men who applied to
the Republican Scientific center of urology at the National hospital of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz republic for
epididymal cyst. The circulation period falls on 2017-2021. Purpose of the study. To evaluate the effectiveness of aceclofenac
on the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 and 4 in patients with epididymal cyst. Materials and
methods. For the diagnosis, the collection of anamnestic data was used for patients with epididymal cyst . All men were
examined by ultrasound. Ultrasound examination was performed using the WED 9608 apparatus with a high-frequency
probe and Doppler sonography. The levels of interleukin - 6, interleukin - 4 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined
in the blood and cystic fluid. The fluid was obtained during surgical excision of cysts, it was examined by immunometric
analysis using mono and polyclonal antibodies. When examining all 116 patients in both groups, both in the
group with spermatocele and epididymocele, there was an increase in the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines:
tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-4 and 6. Results of the study. The conducted scientific work is characterized by
a decrease in the level of cytokines, namely, the indicators of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin - 4 and 6 in all examined
patients, after appropriate treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug - aceclofenac. Conclusion. Thus, the analysis
of the study showed that this method of conservative treatment with aceclofenac is highly effective, which positively affects
the outcome of the disease and the quality of life of the patient.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Efficiency of measures for preventing inflammatory complications of abdominal surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus
Authors: Kultaev U.T.
Pages: 55-61
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Treatment of surgical diseases against the background of diabetes mellitus is one of the important problems of modern
surgery. Its relevance is due to an increase in the number of patients with diabetes mellitus, and, consequently, an in crease in surgical patients suffering from this disease. Despite the advances in abdominal surgery in the treatment of
many abdominal organ pathologies, the incidence of inflammatory complications, especially wound complications,
remains at a high level and occupies one of the first places of complications. The aim of the work is to improve the
treatment results of surgical diseases against the background of diabetes mellitus by preventing inflammatory complications. There were174 patients under observation who had undergone surgery for abdominal cavity diseases suffering from diabetes mellitus. 101 (58.1%) of them were women and 73 (41.9%) - men. To assess the effectiveness
of preventive measures, two groups had been distinguished, which were equal by the main clinical parameters (sex,
age, duration of the disease, type of diabetes mellitus, the nature of abdominal pathology), differences were only in
the preventive measures. The first, control group (71 people), had traditional treatment and prophylaxis measures,
and the second, main group (103 people), in which we used the developed prophylaxis measures. Analysis of the results of treatment showed that traditional treatment caused 26,8% of complications (19 of 71 people), the lethality
rate was 4,2%, and when using preventive measures, the complication 9,9% (10 of 103 people) of the operated patients,
there were no lethal outcomes.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Efficiency of measures for prevention of wound complications in acute appendicitis
Authors: Musaev U.S., Aitnazarov M.S., Kenzhekulov K.K., Baltabaev A.I.
Pages: 74-78
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One of the primary problems of abdominal surgery is the prevention of wound complications, especially in
emergency surgery. Purpose of the study- improving the results of treatment of patients with acute appendicitis through
the use of preventive measures, including ozonized solutions and infrared irradiation of the surgical wound. Materials
and methods. The study included 105 patients with destructive forms of appendicitis (phlegmonous forms in 87, gangrenous
9 and phlegmonous complicated by local peritonitis in 9). Clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of examination
(ultrasound) were used in the examination. In the course of treatment, two groups were identified: The first
group - the main group (51) patients, in addition to antibiotics at the time of the operation and during the suturing of the
abdominal cavity - received irrigation of the abdominal cavity and wounds with an ozonated solution with an ozone concentration
of 8-10 μg / ml and starting from the second day after the operation - irradiation of the surgical wound with
infrared radiation - exposure 10 minutes, for a course of treatment 5-6 sessions. The control group - 54 patients, they received
after the operation antibiotics intramuscularly (gentamicin or ampicillin) and through a microirrigator into the abdominal
cavity with kanamycin 1.0 once a day. In addition, patients in both groups received pain relievers and infusion
therapy. Both groups were equal in terms of the main indicators (gender, age, forms of appendicitis). Results. When comparing
the course of the postoperative period, it was found that in the first main group the pain syndrome disappeared
faster, the temperature returned to normal and a more favorable course of the wound process was noted, and the leukocyte
index of intoxication decreased faster. Complications in the control group were noted in 9 out of 54 (16.79), and in the
main group in 4 out of 51 (7.89). Conclusion. The use of ozonized solution and infrared radiation for the prevention of
wound complications made it possible to reduce the incidence of complications by half, which is the basis for recommending
the use of the method in a broader sense.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Efficiency of measures for prevention of wound complications in acute appendicitis
Authors: Kulbaev U.A., Kultaev U.T. , Musaev A.I., Daniyarova I.A.
Pages: 144-150
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The frequency of the Diabetic Foot Syndrome was studied in 222 patients with diabetes mellitus who were under in-patient
therapy in the endocrinology medical units. The examination covered clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods.
The Diabetic Foot Syndrome was diagnosed in 38 patients among 222 patients and 14 of which had the following complications:
trophic ulcers of small size (no more than 2 cm in diameter) in 5, infected wounds in 4, infected fissures and
roughness in 4 and in one wound after exarticulation of the toe. Preventive measures and treatment were used in two
variants (Diabetic Foot Syndrome group without complications and Diabetic Foot Syndrome group with complications)
to prevent the progression of diabetic foot syndrome. Attention is paid to familiarizing patients with complications of
diabetes mellitus and methods of treatment recommended by an endocrinologist and surgeon. By the time of discharge,
all complications have been cured. After discharge, the patients received preventive courses of treatment under the supervision
of a surgeon. The patients were monitored for 2 years. The disease progression was not identified. The devel oped approach to the prevention of purulent-necrotic complications confirmed its feasibility in clinical practice. The
only joint work (endocrinologist, surgeon) and the patient will reduce any complications incidences.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
EFFICIENT APPROACHES ТО EXTERNAL
Pages: 11-14
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Electrophysiological and neuroimaging characteristics of patients with epilepsy
Authors: Mamytova E.M., Zhusupova A.T.
Pages: 66-72
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The analysis of electrophysiological and neuroimaging data of 430 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy was
carried out. When analyzing the EEG data, it was found that in a routine interictal EEG study, only 60% of cases show
epileptic activity, and in the remaining almost 40% of cases, EEG did not reveal any pathological activity. For this group
of patients, to clarify the diagnosis and correct treatment, it is necessary to conduct video monitoring with EEG registration.
In addition, despite the fact that MRI is a mandatory method of examination in patients with epilepsy, in 13.2%
of cases, patients did not have the opportunity to undergo an MRI examination of the brain. Therefore, equipping public
hospitals in Kyrgyz Republic with modern MRI and EEG devices should be one of the priority directions in the development
epileptology.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Emergency tactics for the treatment of urethral strictures caused by scleroatrophic lichen
Authors: Usupbaev A.Ch., Kurbanaliev R.M., Zhumagaziyev T.S., Akylbek S.
Pages: 130-135
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Introduction. Scleroatrophic lichen is a chronic inflammatory fibrous skin disease of unclear etiology of extragenital
and genital localization. With genital sclerotrophic lichen in men with urethral strictures, it manifests itself in
the form of chronic and acute urinary retention. Uncircumcised men are more likely to be affected by scleroatrophic
lichen, manifested by cicatricial phimoses.
The purpose of the study. To provide information on emergency care for patients with urethral strictures and cicatricial
phimoses caused by scleroatrophic lichen.
Materials and methods. Emergency care was provided at the Republican Scientific Center of Urology to 120 patients
with scleroatrophic lichen aged 17 to 85 years. Trocar cystostomy was performed in 70 patients with acute and chronic
urinary retention due to urethral stricture caused by scleroatrophic lichen. The remaining 50 patients with cicatricial phimosis
caused by scleroatrophic lichen underwent circumcision.
Results. Performing circumcision and further conservative treatment for patients with cicatricial phimosis caused by scleroatrophic
lichen makes it possible to solve the problem of this category of men. Trocar cystostomy in acute and chronic
urinary retention in patients with urethral stricture caused by scleroatrophic lichen makes it possible to carry out a planned
and thorough diagnosis of urethral stricture and to choose the optimal tactics for surgical correction of the urethra.
Conclusion. It is advisable to provide emergency care in the form of trocar cystostomy and circumcisio to patients with
urethral stricture and cicatricial phimosis caused by scleroatrophic lichen.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
EMOTIONAL-VOLUTIONAL IMPAIREMENTS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC STROKE
Pages: 89-91
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Endovascular factors in the progression of ischemic stroke
Authors: Turgumbaev D.D., Murzaliev A. M., Dzhanaliev B. P., Dzhamalbekova А.D.
Pages: 40-46
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The morphometry of the cerebral vascular bed was studied throughout, on the side of ischemic stroke (IS) and on the
opposite side to determine the cause of infarction and its progression in 106 deceased patients with progressive ischemic
stroke (PIS) and for comparison in 63 patients of the same age (control group) who died from other causes. The measurement
results showed that in patients with PIS, there is not only a statistically significant decrease in the internal diameter of the intracranial vessels on the side of the ischemic focus, but even more on the opposite, "healthy" side, compared with the internal diameter of the vessels of patients in the control group.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Epidemiological Situation of Measles Incidence in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Makembayeva Zh. I.
Pages: 99-105
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The article examines the state of the measles epidemiological situation in dynamics, in the period from 2014 to 2020.
The collection of data with long-term indicators of incidence and prevalence of measles was carried out with an assessment of the epidemic process in the Kyrgyz Republic. Comparison of the results obtained in different regions
made it possible to identify the most probable reasons for the increase in the incidence, namely, incomplete immunization coverage of the population in recent years.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in children and adolescents in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Chubakov T.Ch. , Turdumambetova G.K., Baitelieva A.K.
Pages: 119-125
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This article reflects the results of an assessment of the current state and dynamics of the epidemiological situation
of tuberculosis (TB) in children and adolescents in the Kyrgyz Republic (KR) for the period 2011-2020. Statistical
reporting data of the Center for e-Health under the Ministry of Health of the KR and the Department of Informatics and
Epidemiology at the National Center for Phthisiology of the Ministry of Health of the KR for 11 years (2010-2020) in
the KR, in the Chui region and Bishkek were used. The main epidemiological intensive indicator of the incidence of TB
in children and adolescents is analyzed, and the impact of the coronavirus infection pandemic on the prevalence of TB
among children and adolescents is shown. The incidence of TB among children and adolescents in the KR, Chui region
and Bishkek during the indicated observation period remains at a fairly high level and a gradual decrease in this indicator
is observed. Compared to 2010, the most significant decrease in the incidence of TB in children and adolescents has been
noted since 2017. However, a sharp decrease in the incidence of TB among children and adolescents in 2020 compared
to 2019 tends to decrease, so in the KR in children by 65.3%, in Chui region in children by 46.8%, in adolescents by
51.0% and in Bishkek in children by 73.5%, in adolescents by 75.1%, respectively. In general, in the republic, Chui
region and Bishkek, over the past decade, there has been a decrease in the incidence of TB among children and adolescents.
In 2020, this indicator tended to decrease sharply, which is associated with the coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Epidemiology and burden of diabetes in the world and Kyrgyzstan R.B.
Authors: Sultanalieva R.B., Rysbekova G.S., Abylova N.K., Murzakarimova L.K.
Pages: 19-25
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The prevalence of DM has now reached catastrophic proportions, acquiring the character of a non-infectious
epidemic. Providing quality medical care to patients, improving its accessibility, providing medicines, scientific goals
require knowledge of the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus.
Purpose of the study- The aim of our study was to analyze a dynamic of the epidemiological characteristics of diabetes
mellitus in Kyrgyzstan (prevalence, mortality), the prevalence of complications,
Materials and methods. Object of research: database of diabetes mellitus registry.
Results. The total number of diabetes mellitus patients in Kyrgyzstan as of 01.01.2021 was 74801 (1, 12% of the population),
including: type 1 diabetes - 2975, type 2 diabetes — 7183. The dynamics of prevalence was 938, 0→1117, 8/100
ths people. The incidence of diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients: neuropathy 59.5%
and 50.8%, nephropathy 21.5% and 7.4%, retinopathy 38.0% and 24.0%, hypertension 18.3% and 32.7%, ischemic heart
disease 5.1% and 11.4%, myocardial infarction 0.8% and 1.8%, cerebrovascular accident 1 .1% and 2.1% respectively.
Conclusions. The performed analysis demonstrates the importance of assessment of epidemiological characteristics and
monitoring of clinical data on patients with diabetes through a registry for assessing the quality of diabetes care and the
prospects for its development.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES USING RESULTS O STROKE  REGISTER IN CITY BICHKEK
Pages: 101-103
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PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Epidemiology of stroke in the city of Bishkek according to the register (2017-2018)
Authors: Turgumbaev D.D., Samudinova T.T., Abirova A.B., Kulov B.B.
Pages: 90-95
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An epidemiological study of stroke in Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek) was conducted according to a special program using the
register method in 2017-2018. According to expert estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO), stroke ranks
second in the world among causes of death and second in long-term and severe disability of patients.
In the Kyrgyz Republic, reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence of stroke are lacking. in this regard, the stroke
register is the best method for determining the incidence, mortality, mortality and economic consequences of stroke
In just 2 years, 2589 new cases of stroke were registered (1630 and 1570 cases, respectively). The incidence of stroke
was 2.6-2.67 per 1000 population (mean 2.61). The incidence of strokes in the population increases in each age group
by 2-3 times: at the age of 25 to 40 years - 0.18, from 40 to 49 years - 1.2, from 50 to 59 years - 3.8, from 60 to 69 years
- 10.6, and 70 years and older - 25.4 per 1000 residents of the corresponding age per year.The proportion of people of
working age (25-59 years old) who have suffered a cerebral stroke is 26.3%. The number of people recognized as disabled
for the first time in urban areas was 301 people. It is concluded that a long-term register is needed to obtain data on the
dynamics of the incidence rate and evaluate the effectiveness of reform of medical and social care programs for patients.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Ethical grounds for community engagement in public health emergency preparedness
Authors: Kudaibergenova T.A., Aidarov Z. A., Usupova Ch.S., Orozalieva A.A., Seisembaeva A.N., Seitbekova G.S.
Pages: 49-57
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Purpose of the study. To reveal ethical grounds in the Kyrgyz culture for effective communication with local
communities in the framework of public health emergency preparedness in Kyrgyzstan.
Material and methods. Five sources with Kyrgyz proverbs and sayings were studied by the method of qualitative documentary analysis. Topics for analysis: "health"; "welfare"; "good" and related topics; topics related to social solidarity.
Results and discussion. The fifty-nine proverbs and sayings were analysed with the following results: “den-sooluk”
(health) 8.47%; "el" "kөpchuluk", "kөp", "zhurt" (people) 44.1%; "suyuu" (love), "zhakshy", "zhakshylyk" (good) 15.3%;
"birdik" (unity), "yntymak" (concord) 32.2%. The following Kyrgyz values system was revealed as ethical grounds for
social solidarity: “People” (44.1%); "Unity" and "Concord" with people (32. 2%); "Love" and "Good" (15.3%) to people;
individual "Health" (8.47 %). The existence of this system is proved by the collective customs and rituals of "Bata",
"Ashar" and "Tulөө", as well as positive biochemical, neuroendocrine, and physiological changes in the body of their
performers. Our theory: people, referring to their cultural values through the performance of collective rituals and customs,
mobilize positive neuroendocrine, biochemical, and social factors that enhance group identity, collective consciousness,
and social solidarity, thereby increasing the resilience of the people, timely and effectively adapting and recovering,
which helps reduce the negative impact of emergencies on people, the economy and public health.
Conclusions. In creating effective communication systems with Kyrgyz communities, it is important to use this revealed
values system: community is the highest good; unity and harmony, achieved through love and care of one's community
are determinants for individual health and well-being. It is important for the public health emergencies preparedness policymakers to consider the identified value system as ethical grounds for effective and just interaction with local communities.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Etiopathogenetic and clinical features of ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar circulation
Authors: Sverdlova I.A.
Pages: 143-148
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Introduction. Stroke is a medical and social problem primarily because of it´s prevalence and the consequences
that it causes. Stroke is the number one cause of disability worldwide. Ischemic strokes account for 80%, and strokes in
the vertebrobasilar region -20%, the clinical picture of which may be unrecognized even in specialized departments.
The aim of the study was to study the features of the etiopathogenesis and clinical picture of ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar
region.
Materials and Methods. We examined 106 patients with ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar region who received inpatient
treatment at the National Hospital of the MZKR in the period from 2018 to 2022. When the patient was admitted,
the time of onset of the disease, the presence of risk factors for stroke, the level of consciousness according scale Glasgow,
neurological status according to the NIHSS scale (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), pathogenetic subtype of ischemic stroke according to TOAST, features of the clinical picture, ultrasound data of brachiocephalic vessels, neuroimaging.
At discharge, an assessment was made according to the NIHSS, Rankin scales.
Results.
1.Taking into account the onset of the disease, the presence of risk factors, the clinical picture of stroke, ultrasound data
of brachiocephalic vessels, brain neuroimaging data, pathogenetic subtypes of ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar
region were determined according to TOAST
2. When assessed using the Glasgow Coma Scale, NIHSS, and Rankin, mild and moderate strokes with a favorable functional
outcome at discharge from the hospital predominated.
3. The clinical picture of ischemic stroke in the vertebrobasilar region did not always coincide with the focus of infarction
during neuroimaging, which confirms the importance of the latter in the diagnosis of stroke.
Conclusions.
1. Thus, ischemic strokes in the vertebrobasilar region are heterogeneous in terms of etiopathogenetic subtypes, clinical
course, and outcomes according to the Rankin scale.
2. The clinical picture of stroke in the vertebrobasilar region may not coincide with the localization of cerebral infarction,
so neuroimaging remains the standard for diagnosing stroke.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of factors affecting the behavior of target groups in health care-seeking and tuberculosis treatment
Authors: Ibraimova Ch.T., Huffman S. A., Alimakhunov A.K., Ibraimova A.S.
Pages: 70-77
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Kyrgyzstan has one of the highest rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. People at risk of TB
are often among the most hard-to-reach populations, which can make it difficult for them to access health care services.
The study identified enabling factors and barriers to testing and completing treatment for TB patients, causes and types
of stigma and discrimination against TB patients and their families, and widespread misinformation about TB among the
population.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the introduction of pc in hospitals to provide medical care of various levels
Authors: Boronbaeva E.K., Imankulova A.S., Asheraliev M.E., Matkasymova A.T., Omurkulova G. S.
Pages: 65-71
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This publication presents the results of a programm of the Mandatory Health Insurance Fund and the Ministry
of Health to introduce a new funding mechanism for hospital services provided to children during the first 24 hours of
hospitalisation. As an example, an assessment of the activities of the department of short-term stay of the Osh Interregional
Children's Clinical Hospital for the period 2016-2017 is presented. The opening of a short-stay unit has improved access
to medical care and has more than halved the time between admission and treatment. The introduction of the system of
providing short-term medical services has reduced the total number of unwarranted hospitalisations by 70% among therapeutic
and 50% among surgical patients in the inpatient departments of the Osh Interregional Children's Clinical Hospital,
with savings reaching 2,8005.0 thousand soms in 2017. The provision of 24-hour medical care in a short-stay unit has
increased the satisfaction of parents and carers with the services provided. The opening of a short-stay unit at a children's
hospital is an accessible, high-quality, promising, and cost-effective form of providing highly specialised medical care
to the pediatric population. The application of the practice of a one-day stays of the patient in the hospital had a beneficial
effect on the hospital budget. The activities carried out to indicate the need to increase the coverage of educational work
at the primary level in order to increase the sanitary and educational knowledge of the population.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Evaluation of the results of prevention and treatment of patients with bladder neck sclerosis using proteolitic enzymes
Authors: Almerekov A. E., Kolesnichenko I.V., Botalaev B.A., Eivazov N.R.
Pages: 41-47
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Introduction. The scientific study is based on the study of long-term results of surgical treatment of 345 patients
with benign prostatic hyperplasia operated by methods adenomectomy and transurethral resection. Of these, 69 individuals
1-1.5 months after surgery had the development of cicatricial-sclerotic complications in the neck of the bladder. For
the treatment and prevention of cicatricial changes after adenomectomy and transurethral resection, the drug
"Bovhyaluronidase azoximer" was gradually introduced into the submucosal layer of the bladder neck - 3000 IU intraoperatively,
transurethral (or through the fistulous tract) and then intramuscularly every 5 days for 1-1, 5 months. In the
postoperative period after 1-6-12-24 months, there was a decrease in the clinical symptoms of infravesical obstruction
and restoration of the urodynamics of the lower urinary tract in 78.8% of cases.
Purpose of the study: the aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term results of the use of the drug "Bovgialuronidase
azoximer" in the prevention and treatment of patients with sclerosis of the bladder neck who underwent adenomectomy
and transurethral resection.
Material and methods. The study criteria included 108 (31.3%) patients operated on by single-stage transvesical adenomectomy
and 237 (68.7%) - by TURP. In 23.1% of cases after adenomectomy and in 44 (18.6%) cases after TURP,
signs of cicatricial-sclerotic changes in the bladder neck area and signs of urodynamic disorders of varying severity were
revealed.
Results. After administration of the drug "Bovgialuronidase azoximer" into the submucosal layer of the bladder neck
membrane, patients who underwent adenomectomy and transurethral resection had persistent relief of symptoms of in fravesical obstruction, restoration of urine passage and the absence of relapses of the disease in the long postoperative
period.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Evaluation of the results of surgical treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in adults
Authors: Mamytov M.M., Kadyrov R.M., Mamytova E.M.
Pages: 130-139
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Introduction. Drug treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is the mainstay of treatment for epilepsy. However,
in some patients, despite the use by neurologists of drugs with different mechanisms of action, in some patients
with epilepsy, the disease is resistant to drug treatment or pharmacoresistant. In drug-resistant forms of epilepsy, surgery
gives the patient a chance for a complete cure or a significant reduction in the frequency of seizures.
Purpose of the work was to analyze and evaluate the outcomes of treatment in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy with
various methods of their surgical treatment.
Material and methods. A prospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment was carried out. The study included
138 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who were hospitalized at the neurosurgery clinic of the National Hospital under
the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic from 2004 to 2013. We studied the data of neurological, neurophysiological
and neuroimaging examinations, as well as the data of surgical treatment in the near and long term.
Results. The overall level of complications caused by surgeries for epilepsy was quite low (only 2 patients developed
split-brain syndrome after resection surgeries (callosotomy). A more effective and safe operation for the treatment of
drug-resistant epilepsy, according to our observation, was multiple subpial transsection, complete cessation of epileptic
seizures occurred in 20 patients (62.5%).
Conclusions. The effectiveness of the applied methods of surgical treatment in various forms of epilepsy is shown.
Surgical treatment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy allows to achieve regression of the pathological process or
stabilization of the condition in most cases.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Evaluation of the spread and registration of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI)
Authors: Orozbekova A.K., Esenalieva A. D., Osmonalieva A.P., Janabilova G. A.
Pages: 29-34
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Introduction.The problem of healthcare-associated infections plays an important role in public health, not only in industrialized countries, but also in developing countries, where, as a result, inaction and unresolved problems can lead to serious consequences. At the same time, there may be a decrease in the quality of medical services provided, and this can lead to mortality, the development of complications, an increase in the duration of treatment and hospital stay, as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. The most common source of nosocomial infection is manipulation of the urinary tract. [3, 6] Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 80% of all healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of registration and detection of catheter-associated urinary tract in fections in hospitals in Bishkek.
Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of the reporting data for 2017-2021 was carried out using the MS Excel software package. We used reports on infections associated with the provision of medical care from 10 healthcare organizations in the city of Bishkek, collected by the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Infection Control NPO "PM". The data were collected in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic No. 34 dated January 29, 2008 “On the epidemiological surveillance of HCAI”.
Results. In 2017 and 2018 CAIMP did not register. In 2019, there is a sharp increase in registrations of 99% compared to 2018. In 2020 and 2021 there has been a decline in registrations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2020, KAIMP registration was reduced by 65.2% compared to 2019, and in 2021 by 90%. Official statistics in the Kyrgyz Republic do not reflect the true state of affairs with the prevalence of HCAI. According to official registration, the frequency of HCAI in healthcare organizations of the republic does not exceed 2.4%. [4] Deciphering the etiological structure was carried out only in 2017 in 10 pilot healthcare organizations in Bishkek.
Conclusions. The problem of detectability and registration remains relevant, taking into account what it is necessary to introduce point cross-sectional studies in all healthcare organizations in Bishkek. Subsequent analysis of HAI pathogens for antibiotic resistance will improve the diagnosis, detection, registration, treatment, etiological interpretation, develop effective measures that increase the effectiveness of HAI prevention and prevent economic damage.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Evaluation of the surveillance system for parenteral viral hepatitis "B" and "C" in the Kyrgyz Republic, 2020
Authors: Alymkulova V.A., Nabirova D.A. , Otorbaeva D.S.
Pages: 89-96
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About 4 million cases of acute hepatitis B (AHB) are registered annually in the world, 7 million people are diagnosed
with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). More than 85% of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) develop a chronic
form that leads to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. Treatment at the present stage requires large economic costs and
long-term treatment. Chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) causes significant damage to public health due to its ubiquitous distribution
among various population groups, the variety of clinical forms and outcomes (including liver cirrhosis and primary
liver cancer). According to the data of long-term dynamics of morbidity since 2013, associated with CH in the
Kyrgyz Republic, it was predicted with the preservation of morbidity registration over the next decades. In the 8-year
dynamics (2013-2020), there is a tendency to reduce the incidence rate.Out of 155 cases of acute viral hepatitis, the cause
of infection was established in 79 cases (51%). An epidemiological investigation shows that in most cases the patient
cannot remember the likely routes of infection due to the long incubation period. And this is a problem in ascertaining
risk factors. Also, HBV diagnostics have not been established in healthcare facilities, which is confirmed by the large
number of carriers detected among medical workers (in 2020, carriers of HBV-179 cases, HCV-112 cases, detected for
the first time during a preventive examination), and the incidence among health workers is at a very low level (new detected
cases of HBV-0 and HCV-1 case, while CVH - 5 cases).Since parenteral viral hepatitis is still a common infection,
the incidence is still relevant today. Surveillance data for parenteral hepatitis in the Kyrgyz Republic are useful for monitoring, planning and detecting outbreaks.The article contains data on the evaluation of the existing HBV surveillance in
the Kyrgyz Republic. Recommendations are given describing the strengths and weaknesses of the system.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Evaluation of the treatment of patients with diabetic foot syndrome complicated by necrotic process
Authors: Kulbaev U.A., Kultaev U.T. , Maksut uulu E.
Pages: 139-143
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Purpose: to present the results of surgical treatment of patients with diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) complicated with
necrotic process. There are given results of treatment of patients with the DFS. The methods of diagnosis and treatment
tactics are presented. Operations in a cases of necrotic process was performed after the treatment complex, aimed at
limiting the process, thus avoiding high amputation of the thigh in a most cases.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Examination of the spectrum of uropathogens in women with cystitis in the postmenopausal period
Authors: Kozhonaliev Т.Z., Usupbaev A.Ch., Mikukhin D.S., Sadyrbekov N.J.
Pages: 56-61
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One of the most common inflammatory diseases among postmenopausal women is cystitis, which accounts
for 30 to 40% of the total number of uropathologies. In this paper, the authors show the main spectra of uropathogens in
postmenopausal women. The aim of the study was to analyze the spectrum of uropathogens in women with cystitis in the
postmenopausal period. Materials and methods.The results of bacteriological examination of urine and PCR from a vaginal
smear for urogenital infections were collected and processed in 150 patients with cystitis in the postmenopausal period
of the tertiary hospital. Research results and conclusion. The main causative agents of cystitis in the postmenopausal period
are E.coli - 62.3%, Candida albicans - 8.7% and Staphylococcus.spp.- 7.2%. A high level of antibiotic resistance of
the isolated Esherichia coli strains was noted for cephalosporins of the second (50%) and third (55%) generations, fluoroquinolones
of the first generation (45%). A high level of sensitivity of Esherichia coli was observed to aminoglycosides
of the second (80%) and third (100%) generations, fluoroquinolones of the second (75%) and third (95%) generations,
carbapenems (100%) and fosfomycin (100%). A positive PCR result for urogenital infections in patients with cystitis
was obtained in 52.7% of cases.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Experience in initiating PPP projects in the sphere of healthcare of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Ismailov M.A., Dolonbaeva Z.A. , Abilov B.A.
Pages: 117-123
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The relevance of this study lies in the need to search for new innovative management solutions aimed at improving the quality of the provided hemodialysis services for people suffering from chronic renal diseases of the 5th
stage. The set goal of providing high-quality hemodialysis services to patients in need using the PPP model has
been achieved. Based on the use of the methods, the main results were obtained on optimizing the conditions for
receiving dialysis services, which can be used to form a strategy for improving the current and future models of
the healthcare system.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Experience in treating extensive purulent-necrotic wounds in phase I of the wound process
Authors: Imankulova A.S., Kochorov O.T., Mamatov N.N., Muratov K.K., Zhumabaev A.Zh., Mamyshov A.Zh.
Pages: 66-72
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One of the acute problems of treating extensive purulent-necrotic wounds of various localizations is postoperative
treatment until complete healing. Local wound therapy is also used as the basis of the integrated approach along with
surgical methods - the use of agents with a differentiated effect on the wound process, taking into account the phase
of the wound process and the characteristics of the course of the disease. Inadequate postoperative wound management
can cause poor surgical outcomes, which is especially important in phase I of the wound process. Proteolytic enzymes
are a priority for wound purification in the inflammation phase. The article presents the results of the study of the
comparative effectiveness of proteolytic enzymes in surgical patients based on the use of Enzilite in the I phase of
the wound process.
It was shown that the use of the complex of proteolytic enzymes "Enzilite" in patients with purulent-necrotic wounds
of various localizations allows improving treatment results by 6.1% and reducing the risk of repeated surgical interventions by 19.6%.
FRONT LINE
Experience of international cooperation in population seroepidemiologic studies
Authors: Popova A.Yu., Egorova S.A., Smirnov V.S., Smolenskyi V.Yu., Nuridinova Zh.N. , Dzhangaziyev B.I., Drozd I.V. , Milichkina A.M., Zhimbaeva O.B. , Tarasenko A.A. , Dashkevich A.M. , Nanushyan L.M. , Vanyan A.V., Melik-Andreasyan G.G. , Ruziev M.M. , Nurmatov Z.Sh., Totolyan A.A., Kasymov O.T.
Pages: 11-20
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The Russian Federation has been working consistently to assist partner countries in building scientific capacity and expanding co-operation in the study of infectious diseases. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the support of the Government of the Russian Federation, Rospotrebnadzor developed a multi-stage programme of seromonitoring of population immunity to SARS-CoV-2, which was implemented in the Russian Federation, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Tajikistan. Different age and professional groups of the countries were included in the studies. IgG antibody levels to two major SARS CoV2 antigens: nucleocapsid (Nc) and receptor-binding domain S-protein (RBD) were assessed in volunteers because of their maximal presence during the infection or postvaccination processes. In general, in those countries where the study began in 2020-2021, there was a steady trend towards increasing levels of population immunity (the proportion of seropositive individuals) during the pandemic. In those countries that joined the study later in the pandemic in 2022, a significant proportion of the population had already experienced COVID-19 in manifest or asymptomatic form, so there were no statistically significant age, occupational orgeographic differences in seroprevalence due to both the intensive "pro-epidemic" and the vaccination campaign that began in mid-2021. In the first half of 2021, vaccination against coronavirus (both primary and booster), which was actively carried out in all countries, became the main reasons for the increase in the level of population immunity. At the same time, there was a shift in the structure of seropositivity towards an increase in the proportion of individuals who had antibodies only to RBD. At the late dates of the pandemic in 2022-2023, almost 90% of seropositive volunteers had humoral immunity represented by antibodies to both antigens (Nc+RBD). It is evident that population immunity is "hybrid" in the latepandemic, under conditions of high incidence of a highly transmissible strain and high vaccination coverage.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Features of clinical manifestations and course of tuberculous meningitis in adults in modern conditions
Authors: Tynystanova R.I., Azykova A.B., Dushimbekova K.A., Chubakov T.Ch.
Pages: 103-107
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Tuberculous meningitis is one of the most severe forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It often leads to disability
and death of patients.
The work retrospectively studied 95 case histories of patients who were in a specialized department of the National Center
for Phthisiology under the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic.
The medical and social characteristics, indicators of clinical and laboratory research methods and the effectiveness of
complex treatment of patients with tuberculous meningitis were studied. Almost all patients showed signs of damage to
the substance of the brain (menigoencephalitis), which indicates a late diagnosis of tuberculosis. The most sensitive
method for detecting the causative agent of tuberculosis in the cerebrospinal fluid turned out to be the molecular genetic
method (GenXpert MTB/RIF). A high mortality rate was established for tuberculous meningitis (55.8%). The main cause
of death of patients was late detection of the disease, generalized forms of the tuberculosis process and severe concomitant
diseases.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Features of fat metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with different body weight in the highlands of Kyrgyzstan
Authors: Toktogulova N.A., Sultanalieva R.B., Tukhvatshin R.R.
Pages: 34-40
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Aim. To study the features of lipid metabolism disorders in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with
different body weights in the conditions of inhabited highlands. Material and methods. The study was carried out within
the framework of the project "Etiopathogenetic features and rates of development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
(NAFLD) in the conditions of Kyrgyzstan" (No. of state registration MHN / TZ-2020-3). An open comparative study of
patients with two forms of NAFLD: fatty liver (FL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n=236) living in low
mountains (Bishkek, altitude above sea level - 750-800 m, n=111) and inhabited highlands (At-Bashy district , Naryn region,
height above sea level - 2046-2300 m, n=125) Kyrgyzstan. The average age of the patients was 55,7±0,95 years.
Given that genetic factors may play a role in the development of NAFLD, we analyzed a population represented only by
ethnic Kyrgyz. Patients in each group were divided into lean (BMI≤23) and obese (BMI≥23) groups. To determine physical
activity, a physical activity questionnaire was used, which was compiled on the basis of the materials of the International
Physical Activity Prevalence Study www.ipaq.ki.se. Physical examination included measurement of anthropometric
parameters (height, body weight, waist circumference (WC)), calculation of body mass index (BMI), skeletal muscle
mass index (SMM), percentage of body fat. According to the grades of the WHO, the degree of obesity was assessed by
BMI for Asians. Blood samples were taken for research in the morning on an empty stomach after at least 12 hours of
fasting. The following indicators were determined: glucose, lipid spectrum (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol,
triglycerides), ALT, AST levels. The BARD scale was used as a predictor for assessing the development of liver
fibrosis in patients with NAFLD [1]. The scoring system included three variables: BMI, AST / ALT, and the presence of
DM 2.The diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was made on the basis of history, laboratory tests, ultrasound
examination of the liver, and exclusion of other liver diseases. The results were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 statistical
software package for Windows. A p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant at the 95% confidence level.
Results. It has been established that residents of highlands with NAFLD are represented by lower BMI relative to residents
of lowlands. In women, the levels of SMM and the percentage of fat are significantly and statistically significantly correlated
(r = - 0.971, p <0.001), while in men these two indicators are not related. Men showed a trend towards higher
percentages of fat, regardless of body weight and region of residence. For women, this indicator was within acceptable
limits and did not exceed 31%. There was found a statistically significant difference in total cholesterol levels between
low and high mountain people in the group of obese patients (p <0.001) suffering from NAFLD. Statistically significant
low ALT indices were revealed in the group of obese patients living in mid-mountain conditions. Conclusions. Taken together,
our results suggest that chronic high-mountain hypoxia may slow down the course of overweight-induced NAFLD.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Features of microflora and its sensitivity to antimicrobial agents in patients with chronic pathology of ear, nose and throat, residents of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Ergeshova A.M., Sulaimanov J.S., Karagulova M.M., Lee G.V.
Pages: 112-118
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Introduction. Bacteriological verification of species composition of microorganisms and sensitivity to used medicinal
products, which included in drops and mixtures for treatment of chronic purulent-inflammatory diseases of ear,
nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, palatine tonsils.
The aim of the study is to study microflora and its sensitivity to the medicinal products, recommended for treatment in
patients with chronic inflammation of the middle ear, paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity, palatine tonsils.
Materials and Methods. Bacteriological verification was carried out on materials obtained from 77 patients with chronic
inflammation of the maxillary sinus cavity, 30 patients with chronic polyposis rhinosinusitis, 126 patients with chronic
middle ear inflammation and 65 patients with chronic tonsillitis.
Results and their discussion. The carried out research allowed the isolation and identification of 316 strains. Among them
48 were of fungal nature and the rest were of bacterial nature. The bacterial microflora in each of the examined groups
of patients had a somewhat different representation of microorganisms.
Conclusions. The suggested mixture on Synthomycin liniment permits when introduced into the crypts of the palatine
tonsils and into the sinus after its puncture and irrigation to achieve a prolonged, rather reliable therapeutic effect, which
permits to recognize it as highly effective and recommend it for alternative treatment.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Features of physical development of Bishkek Choreographic School students
Authors: Kerimbayeva I.B., Esenamanova M.K., Shatmanov A.A.
Pages: 135-141
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Introduction. Physical development is one of the key criteria for determining the pace of age-related changes and the health of children and adolescents. The purpose of the study - Study and evaluation of physical development of students of Bishkek Choreographic School named after Ch. Bazarbayev. Materials and methods. A survey of 160 students of the Bishkek Choreographic School, aged from 10 years to 17 years,
was conducted. Anthropometric indicators were evaluated using regional evaluation tables, and the Quetelet index (BMI) using standards recommended by WHO (2007). Results and their discussion. The greatest difference in growth fluctuations in the studied groups of boys and girls was
revealed at the age of 14, 15, 16 and 17 years. The greatest increase in the length and body weight of boys falls on 13 years, for girls – on 12 years. Disharmonious physical development was detected in 21.8% of boys in the age group of 11-14 years, and among adolescents in 14.3%. The proportion of girls aged 10 to 17 with disharmonious physical development
averaged 19.4%, mainly due to body weight deficiency. Lack of body weight according to BMI was detected in 13.0% of boys aged 11-14 years and in 31.0% of adolescents. As they get older, the proportion of boys with excess body weight decreases from 33.3% (10 years) to 3.4% (15-17 years). Among girls, body weight deficiency was detected in the age group of 11-14 years (41.7%), and in the remaining 36.3% (10 years) and 30.3% (15-17 years) which, apparently, is related to the specifics of their future profession. Conclusions. According to the results of the assessment of anthropological indicators of students of the choreographic
school, some features of physical development depending on gender and age are revealed.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
FEBRILE SEIZURES, MODERN CONCEPT
Pages: 88-90
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Fertility status of men who have undergone surgery for the reproductive system
Authors: Ryskulbekov N.R. , Abaraliev A.K., Suranov D.A., Kubanychbek u B.
Pages: 72-76
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The article discusses the state of reproductive function in men. In recent years, the state of male reproductive
function has been shown to be of particular medical importance, and the issue of early detection and treatment of diseases
of the male reproductive system treated by surgical interventions of the reproductive system is an urgent problem. It has
also been studied that surgical treatment of diseases of the male reproductive function - varicocele, hydrocele, spermatocele
- improves blood circulation in the blood vessels - by 78%. There is a significant increase in the size of the affected
testis after surgery, the volume of the left testicle increased by an average of 24%, and the right testicle - by 12%. Adolescents
with varicocele, hydrocele and spermatocele need dynamic monitoring by a uroandrologist and testing of testosterone
(ultrasound), gonadotropins, testosterone every 6 months, as well as treatment tactics for early detection of testicular
microcalcinosis. For patients with varicocele, surgical treatment using the Marble method is recommended and its effectiveness
is 91.5%. Patients who have undergone surgery on the reproductive system are recommended to be dynamically
monitored by an urologist-andrologist, endocrinologist, as well as spermogram, gonadotropin levels, testosterone, and
then under the supervision of an andrologist.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Fertility status of young Kyrgyz males aged 18 to 40 living in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Abdubaitov N.A., Baatyrbekov N., Stambekova K.N.
Pages: 96-100
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The article presents the results of an assessment of the state of fertility of Kyrgyz men aged 18 to 40 years
living in Kyrgyzstan for the period 2019-2022. The analysis of the results of spermograms of 1557 men from Chui, Osh,
Nyryn and Batken regions in a comparative aspect was carried out.
The results of the study made it possible to preliminary identify the following features: the concentration of spermatozoa
in the ejaculate increases with age and with the indicators of the comparison group 1.5 times higher; the ratio of progressively
motile spermatozoa is slightly lower in the population and the viability of spermatozoa is higher in the group of
men aged 30 to 40 years, that is, the older the man, the higher the spermogram and fertility. The results obtained will
make it possible to objectively assess the fertility and quality of the spermogram, depending on the characteristics identified
in the context of age and various living conditions in the country.
HISTORY OF MEDICINE
Formation and development of hygiene within the system of higher medical education of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Bapaliyeva G.O., Atambaeva R.M., Turgumbayeva J.D., Kasymov O.T.
Pages: 158-165
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The creation and development of hygienic science in the system of higher medical education of the country is
connected with the opening of the Kyrgyz Medical Institute in 1939 and the organization of the Department of General
Hygiene. Subsequently, the historiography of hygiene is closely interrelated with the opening in 1953 of the sanitary and
hygienic faculty with specialized departments, forming a comprehensive development of preventive medicine in the
country. The process under consideration of the experience of accumulating the development of science in various areas
of hygiene covers a long road from the 38-40s of the XX century to the present period of the XXI century, the achievements
of scientists-hygienists of Kyrgyzstan. The presented analysis allows us to conclude that the study of various issues
of the development of hygienic disciplines was a kind of center of organizational foundations for conducting scientific
research in the field of hygiene. Today in the modern world, hygiene as a science and practice is undergoing qualitative
changes, which significantly actualizes the study of historiographical aspects of its development in the Kyrgyz Republic.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Formation of the epidemiological surveillance system for viral hepatitis B in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Kylychbekova S.N., Nurmatov Z.Sh., Ismailova A.D.
Pages: 121-127
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Introduction. According to 2019 World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are 296 million people living with viral hepatitis B (HBV) worldwide, with about 1.5 million new infections occurring each year. In 2019, 820,000 people died in the world, and in the European regions, about 171,000 people died from the consequences of chronic viral hepatitis B as a result of cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer). Kyrgyzstan is a country where there is a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. According to WHO estimates, about half a million people in Kyrgyzstan suffer from viral hepatitis B.
Purpose of the study - Analysis of the development of the epidemiological surveillance system for viral hepatitis B in the Kyrgyz Republic.The materials Literature data, regulatory technical documents (NTD) and reporting data of healthcare organizations. Methods. A descriptive characterization and statistical processing of the data obtained have been carried out, trends of growth and decline of individual epidemiological features have been determined.
Results.A brief description of all NTDs affecting the system for detecting, recording and reporting the incidence of HBV in healthcare organizations is given. The dynamics of HBV incidence and their epidemiological characteristics by age characteristics were retrospectively studied. A separate characteristic of the impact of the introduction of vaccination of newborns on the dynamics of morbidity is given. Based on the data obtained, recommendations were developed to improve the system of epidemiological surveillance of viral hepatitis B in the Kyrgyz Republic. Conclusion. Regulatory and technical documents ensured the improvement of the HBV epidemiological surveillance
system by improving the quality of early detection, recording and reporting. The incidence of HBV over the past 20 years has shown a downward trend, due to the introduction of vaccination for newborns in the framework of the adopted Legislative acts, the Decree of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic and orders of the Ministry of Health.
МААЛЫМАТ ЖАНА ХРОНИКА
Foundations of conflictology in health management: conflicts and their resolution
Authors: Abdyjalieva A.S., Mamatova K.T., Rozieva R.S.
Pages: 216-220
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The article provides classification of conflicts, ways and methods of resolving conflict situations in healthcare
management. Conflicts are present in every organization, are an integral part of any team. Consequently, conflict situations have a special impact on the life within the organization.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Frequency, structure and dynamics of brucellosis incidence in 2020-2022 in the Jalal-Abad region of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Temirov N.M., Temirova V.N., Abdimunova B.T., Zholdoshev S.T.
Pages: 54-62
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Introduction. The article presents an epidemiological analysis, the structure of morbidity and epizootic assessment of brucellosis in residents of the urban population of the Jalal-Abad region for 2020-2022 in order to improve further control of brucellosis. The purpose of the work- to conduct an epidemiological analysis of the features of the incidence of brucellosis of the urban population in the region. Materials and methods. Based on data from the Regional Center for Morbidity Prevention and Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance, monthly and annual reporting form No. 1, forms "On infectious and parasitic diseases", district and city central state sanitary and epidemiological supervision submitted to the regional central department of state sanitary and epidemiological supervision. Results and discussions. Over the past three years, there has been a trend of an increase in the incidence in the districts of the region, especially in the highlands, and a decrease in the urban population. There was also an increase in brucellosis among children under 14 years of age, from 1.4 to 3.2 times. In the structure of the incidence of brucellosis, acute brucellosis is in the first place - 92.4%, chronic 5.2% is in second place and subacute is 2.3%. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made clinically and laboratory in 5.3%, using the bacteriological method in 68.7%, and clinical and epidemiological in 31.2%. Conclusion. Thus, the incidence of brucellosis of the population living in the cities of the Jalal-Abad region has decreased from 32.0 to 17.4 per 100 thousand over the past three years. At the same time, there was a tendency to increase the incidence in the districts of the region (from 18.7 -24.2 per 100 thousand population).
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES OF VEGET
Pages: 50-53
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
GAUCHER DISEASE
Pages: 76-79
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
GERONTOLOGY IN SURGERY
Pages: 133-136
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Healthcare workers are a group at high risk of contracting COVID-19
Authors: Asyranova U.S., Baiyzbekova D.A., Zhumalieva C.K
Pages: 147-151
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Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant increase in the burden on health care workers
and demonstrated a dangerous disregard for their health, safety, and well-being. Health care workers had a critical rolenot only in the clinical management of patients, but also in ensuring appropriate infection prevention and infection control (IPIC) measures in health care organizations. "Preventive measures taken in the Kyrgyz Republic in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the introduction
of the State of Emergency (SOE) and border closures, were not effective, and the epidemic spread to all regions, with high rates of infection among and healthcare workers of alarming concern. One in four cases occurred among health workers (26%)." [13] And this rate among health workers remained high.
The aim of the study was to study and analyze literature-scientific data on the fact of high COVID-19 infection among medical workers and on necessity, relevance of organization of epidemiological surveillance of COVID-19 spread among medical workers, as an effective measure of COVID-19 prevention in the general population. Methods. We studied and analyzed 13 literature-scientific data that were identified during the global epidemiological surveillance of WHO, Rospotrebnadzor of the Russian Federation and data of epidemiological investigation of causeeffect relationships of COVID-19 infection of medical workers in Kyrgyzstan until May 2020. The results of the information-analytical search, allowed to substantiate the relevance and priority for the Kyrgyz Republic in the organization of epidemiological surveillance over the spread of COVID-19 among health workers, which is essential and relevant to the scientific validity in the organization of epidemiological surveillance over the spread of COVID-19 among health workers in DHD of the Kyrgyz Republic by assessing the potential risk factors of infection of health workers with SARS-CoV-2 virus, as to identify the characteristics of transmission, i.e. Conclusion. National level scientific studies to assess the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 among health care workers, including their exposure characteristics and risk factors, as part of a case-control study, will be directed for epidemiological
surveillance purposes and to obtain an epidemiological picture. The results of which will help us determine
the most appropriate CRP measures at the level of health care organizations.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Herd immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 among the population of the Kyrgyz  Republic
Authors: Nuridinova Zh. N. , Nurmatov Sh.Zh., Kuchuk T.E.
Pages: 21-28
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Introduction. In the Kyrgyz Republic, in the period after the second wave of the coronavirus infection pandemic in 2021, the second round of a seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess population immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
The purpose of the study was to determine the level and structure of population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 among the population of the Kyrgyz Republic during the period of intensive spread of COVID-19.
Materials and methods. The research methods are seroepidemiological, population-based, age-stratified prospective (cross-sectional). The materials for the study were serums and personal data of persons who agreed to the study.
Results and discussions. The results of laboratory studies showed that in the republic the proportion of people with antibodies to coronavirus infection in February 2021 amounted to 71.2% against 30.8% in July 2020. Seroprevalence by region in the first round of the study ranged from 13 to 62.7%, in the second round 63.9 to 77.8%.
In the first round of the study, out of 1446 seropositive individuals 925 64.0% (61.5-66.5) had symptoms of COVID-19, and in the second round of 3372/1696- 50.3% (48.6-52.0), respectively. They asked for medical help in the first round out of 1446/315 -21.8% (19.7-23.9), in the second round out of 3372/855 -25.4% (23.9-26.9). The results of both rounds of the study show that with increasing age, the proportion of people seeking medical care in parallel increases in the first round ranging from 10.0 to 27.5%, and in the second round from 6.2 to 37.5%. Conclusions. An increase in seropositivity was noted in all age categories, and the proportion of seropositivity increased with increasing age in the examined individuals. An analysis of epidemiological indicators based on the personal data of the examined persons showed that, compared with the results of the first round of the study, the manifestation of clinical symptoms decreased by 13.7%, the number of patients seeking medical care by 3.6% and the number of hospitalized patients by 4.6 %. This indicates a decrease in the severity of the clinical course of the incidence of coroavirus infection. A decrease in the manifestation of symptoms of the disease is especially noted in the age category 0-9 and 10-19 years.
HISTORY OF MEDICINE
Historical aspects of the development of medical education and science in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Bapaliyeva G.O., Kasymov O.T., Turgumbayeva J.D.
Pages: 160-165
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This article is devoted to the historical facts of the development of medical education and science in the Kyrgyz Republic. The article examines the historical aspects of the formation of the state system of training medical personnel
in the Kyrgyz Republic in the late 19th - early 20th centuries.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Hygienic features of nutrition of astrakhan students in connection with their physical development and acute viral infection illness
Authors: Kuznetsov I.A., Kasymbekov Zh.O., Rasulov M.M.
Pages: 70-76
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Introduction. It is established that infectious diseases adversely affect the nutritional status. To confirm this fact and to study the issue in more detail study, a hygienic analysis of the nutritional structure and the main morphological and physiological indicators of the development and the composition of body tissues in girls - students of the Astrakhan State Technical University and the Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, taking into account the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections, was carried out. Studies were conducted with the participation of girls who were fond of various diets compared to young men to maintain a slender figure and anorexia is more often observed in this cohort of persons. Purpose: To carry out a hygienic assessment of the nutritional structure and the main morphophysiological characteristics of young students in the city of Astrakhan, taking into account the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections. Materials and methods. The studies involved students from the Astrakhan Technical University and the Astrakhan University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 299 female students were observed. 2 groups were identified: control girls
- 100 people (sampled from 268 examined girls, whose physical development indices fit into the reference parameters); girls with protein deficiency - 25 people (a random sample of 32 persons whose physical development indices indicated the presence of protein insufficiency syndrome. A group of female students with visceral of protein insufficiency syndrome often suffering from acute respiratory viral infections was also identified. To analyze the epidemiological situation on of acute respiratory viral infections, the data of the health center of the Astrakhan State Technical University and the Astrakhan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering were used. Conventional somatometric methods for assessing physical development and nutrition, biochemical and general blood analysis were used. Statistical processing of the data was performed using the application package Statistica 10, StatisticsPlus 2.1 and MS Excel 2003.
Results. Female students with trophic status disorders had significantly lower body weight (88.2% compared to the control group), due to a decrease in the amount of muscle (88.5%), fat (87.7%) and lean mass (88.7%). They also had significantly less muscle tissue (92.9%). At the same time, the physical development of girls with acute respiratory viral infections fell within the normal limits, the exception was the subjects with a lean body weight less than the average value, and their body mass index corresponded to a mild degree of malnutrition due to protein deficiency syndrome. The indicators of the development of the tissues of girls with a lower content of the composition of the studied tissues were significantly decreased compared to the control group and groups with higher values of these indicators. Conclusion.An increase in the morbidity in girls correlates with the content of muscle tissue in the body. With a decrease in the amount of muscle tissue below a certain value, the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections increases, and physical development decreases up to the development of protein deficiency syndrome.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Iatrogenic injury of the ureter: consideration of the problem
Authors: Toktosopiev Ch.N., Imankulova A.S., Osmonov D.T, Usupbaev A.Ch.
Pages: 164-170
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There is an opinion that gynecological and obstetric operations are the main cause of iatrogenic injuries, and
they also occur during operations on the pelvic organs and retroperitoneal space. A literature review was conducted on
iatrogenic damage to the ureter. A search was conducted on the topic of iatrogenic damage to the ureter and the most representative,
cited articles were selected in the Scopus, PubMed and WoS databases.
Methods. The success of treatment of iatrogenic damage to the ureter depends on the period of diagnosis. We have studied
most aspects of iatrogenic damage to the ureter. An unfavorable prognosis for the patient is an unrecognized iatrogenic
injury of the ureter. Delayed diagnosis is an unfavorable prognosis of treatment. Treatment is carried out by an operative
or conservative method.
Results. Iatrogenic injuries may be accompanied by legal consequences. Treatment can be lengthy and accompanied by
financial costs and not always instantaneous. It often leads to depression and stress.
Discussion/Conclusion.Thus, iatrogenic damage to the ureter is still intractable. It is necessary to introduce algorithms
for examining patients and implement a multidisciplinary approach.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Immediate and long-term results of surgical treatment of patients with post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis of tubular bones against the background of the use of traditional technologies
Authors: Aburasulov M.G., Sagymbaev E.M., Bularkieva E.A.
Pages: 62-68
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Chronic osteomyelitis is one of the most common purulent inflammatory diseases. The proportion of patients
with chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis among patients with purulent diseases is 6-10%. Modern research shows that
osteomyelitis after open bone fractures occurs in 10-22% of cases, after surgical treatment of closed fractures - from 2 to
7% and very often in tubular bones [13].
The treatment of a purulent surgical infection to this day remains one of the most important and difficult to solve problems,
which is associated not only with a decrease in the body's immune resistance, the widespread use of antibiotic-resistant
microflora strains that can cause purulent complications, but also with unsatisfactory results of surgical interventions,
the reasons for which are many authors see in the errors of early diagnosis at the prehospital stage, in preoperative preparation,
as well as in the technique of performing the operation [14,15].
The social significance of the problem lies in the fact that purulent diseases and osteomyelitis suffer mainly from the
most efficient part of the population, while more than 90% of patients subsequently become disabled [16]. This is largely
due to the high level of injuries, an increase in the proportion of severe injuries of the musculoskeletal system and an increase
in the number of post-traumatic osteomyelitis, as well as the expansion of indications for surgical methods of
treatment, primarily for various types of submerged metal osteosynthesis.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Immediate results of surgical treatment of colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases
Authors: Osombaev M.Sh., Abdrasulov K.D., Dzhekshenov M.J.
Pages: 163-167
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The management of patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer (SMCRC) remains a challenge for
an interdisciplinary team. The results of a simultaneous surgical strategy, in combination with resection of the primary
malignant neoplasm and liver metastases, avoid complications during a major re-operation, theoretically reduce the risk
of dissemination of the disease, and allow adjuvant therapy to be completed in a timely manner. Therefore, it is unclear
to what extent this surgical strategy is applied in the general population and whether comparable results are achieved. Simultaneous
removal of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (LIC) is of increasing
interest.The purpose of the study -to conduct a comparative analysis of the immediate results of synchronous and staged
surgical treatment of patients with SMCRC.Material and methods. The results of treatment of 41 patients with MCRC
with synchronous liver damage, who underwent synchronous (group A, n=21) and staged resections (group B, n=20) of
the liver in the department of intestinal tumors of the National Center of Oncology and Hematology of the Ministry of
Health of the Kyrgyz Republic during the period from 2010 to 2020. Results. The total level of postoperative complications
in groups A and B after the completion of the surgical stages did not differ statistically. A shorter duration of surgery was
registered in group A — 316.3±10.3 minutes, while in group B it was 484.1±18.3 minutes (p<0.001). Patients after staged
resections stayed longer in the hospital - 21.1±0.7 bed-days, while after synchronous resections - 10.32±0.6 bed-days
(p<0.001). Conclusions.An analysis of our studies indicates the need to develop a differentiated approach to the surgical
treatment of SMCR.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Impact of COVID-19 on the Delivery of Obstetric and Gynecological Services to women
Authors: Abdirazakov N.A., Kamchybekova T.K., Amanbekov E.B., Baiyzbekova D.A.
Pages: 35-42
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Introduction. Regime-restrictive measures were implemented in the country. March 16, 2020, which lasted a total of 47 days. During the period of active spread of the new coronavirus infection, there was a significant reduction in
the provision of services to the population at the outpatient level, including obstetric and gynecological services. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on the provision of obstetric and gynecological services to women. Materials and Methods. Data from the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic (NSC KR) and the Electronic Health Center of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic (EHC) for 2019 (pre-pandemic period) and 2020
(pandemic period) were taken for situation analysis and 542 women aged 18 years and older were questioned.
Results and discussion. Based on the data analysis, the COVID-19 pandemic and the imposition of restrictive measures
influenced women to use health care organizations to obtain obstetric and gynecological services. According to the National Statistical Committee and the e-Health Center of the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic, the maternal mortality rate increased significantly in 2020 due to extragenital causes (including COVID-19), and as a result of
inaccessibility of obstetric and gynecological services and untimely registration of pregnant women.
Conclusion. For pregnancy complications, obtaining infertility services, and menstrual disorders. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the maternal mortality rate. In recent years there was a decrease in the maternal mortality rate until
2019, but in 2020 the rate increased by 45.6%. The number of maternal deaths from extragenital diseases almost doubled.
It is also possible that the growth of the maternal mortality rate is observed as a consequence of inaccessibility of obstetric
and gynecological services, untimely registration. The share of deaths during pregnancy increased by 11.7% and from
abortions by 0.7% (50% - criminal abortions and 50% - formal abortions), 4.5% was due to rupture of the uterus. According to international studies, 75.2% of participants did not plan the pregnancy, most likely due to the economic situation during the COVID-19 regime. The study in Kyrgyzstan revealed that COVID-19 influenced the decision not to become
pregnant by 26.27%. Also the worsened economic situation since the introduction of restrictive measures had a significant
impact on family planning decisions, and 4.58% of respondents who did not have children believed that the birth of a child should be postponed due to the fear of the COVID-19 pandemic.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Impact of COVID-19 on the implementation of activities by the anti-tuberculosis service of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Abdrakhmanova E.D.
Pages: 108-113
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The article presents data on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the implementation of anti-tuberculosis
measures, in particular on the detection of tuberculosis cases in the Kyrgyz Republic. To achieve this goal, the reporting
data of the Department of Informatics and Epidemiology of the National Center of Phthisiology for 2019-2020 were
taken. The analysis included data on the number of reported cases of tuberculosis (TB), morbidity and mortality from
TB in 2019-2021. According to the NCF, epidemiological indicators such as morbidity and mortality from TB in 2020
compared to 2019 decreased significantly: the incidence of tuberculosis by 3.3 times (from 78.9 to 53.5, OR =3.3, 95%
CI 1.8-6.2, χ2 and mortality did not change, remaining at 3.9). A significant decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis (by
32.2%) is associated with a decrease in detection due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The TB service had difficulties in
staffing during the pandemic, which certainly led to a deterioration in the service of TB patients. The incidence of tuberculosis
in 2021 shows an improvement in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and an increase in the number of registered cases
(58.9 cases per 100 thousand population). Over the past 4 years, the highest incidence of tuberculosis in the republic has
been observed in the Chui region (124.2-88.2), then in the regions with a large population – Bishkek (88.8-59.7), Jalal-
Abad (73.3-55.6) and Osh region (75.0-55.9), and the lowest indicator is in Issyk-Kul region (48.9-37.5).
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis
Authors: Altymysheva N.A. , Toktogonova A.A., Ismailova A.D., Sheisheyeva N.A.
Pages: 44-48
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The COVID-19 pandemic has seriously undermined the progress made in the fight against tuberculosis worldwide over the past 10 years. In 2020, compared to 2019, due to restrictions on access to tuberculosis treatment services,
reduced funding for TB services and programs, there was a decrease in the registration of TB cases, a reduction in the
detection of TB of all ages, children and MDR TB by up to 40%, as well as a reduction in preventive TB treatment of household contacts and people living with HIV. In addition, the staff of the tuberculosis service was redistributed to other
functions.
According to the World Health Organization: 8 million new cases of tuberculosis are registered annually in the world, 2
million patients die. If this trend continues, many experts express fears that the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a deterioration in the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis.
Studies conducted in 2020 showed that if the COVID-19 pandemic on a global scale leads to a 25% decrease in the expected levels of TB detection within 6 months, then we can expect an increase in tuberculosis mortality by 26%, which
will return us to the levels of tuberculosis mortality observed in 2012 [1]. In 2020, treatment for tuberculosis decreased
by 21% compared to 2019 [2].
According to the early modeling conducted in 2020, it is expected that in the period from 2020 to 2025 another 1.4 million
people will die from tuberculosis as a direct consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is significantly more than
from any other infection [3]. All this will worsen the situation with tuberculosis in the world, achieved five years ago,
and will cast doubt on the implementation of the goal put forward by world leaders – to end tuberculosis by 2030.
Objective: to review the situation of tuberculosis incidence during the pandemic.
Materials and methods of research. The materials for studying the effect of COVID-19 on tuberculosis were statistical
data on the registration of diseases.
Results and discussion. In 2020, in the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as throughout the world, the detection rate of tuberculosis
decreased seriously. According to experts, the number of new cases has decreased not because the disease is losing ground,
but because not all cases have been identified. As a result, there is every reason to assume that the number of cases may
increase in the coming years. About this and what lessons were learned in Kyrgyzstan in 2020, when the detection of tuberculosis was difficult.
Conclusions. The new COVID-19 infection has exacerbated the problems of tuberculosis. There is a possibility of deterioration of the epidemic situation regarding the spread of tuberculosis against the background of COVID-19. This problem may have an adverse effect on the incidence of tuberculosis i
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis services in Kyrgyzstan
Authors: Huffman S. A., Kadyralieva A. A., Cholurova R. A., Ibraimova A.S., Abdrakhmanova E.D.
Pages: 78-85
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A Quality of TB Services Assessment was conducted in Kyrgyzstan with a special module designed to assess
the impact of COVID-19 on TB services. Results demonstrate widespread disruption to TB services across all areas, including
reallocation of TB resources to COVID-19, decreased TB case detection and treatment, and impacts on infection
control. Results also show significant uptake of measures implemented to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on TB services,
including patient-centered services. There is a need to refocus efforts and investment on TB in order to remedy the
impacts on the TB control system.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
INCIDENCE OF PRIMARY BRAIN TUMOR
Pages: 43-46
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Indicators of immune status and results of culture mycobacteria tuberculosis in the process of chemotherapy in patients with lung tuberculosis
Authors: Dudenko E.V.
Pages: 65-69
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The immune status and result of culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) were compared in
newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TBL) during chemotherapy. Upon admission, 51 patients were
examined. Research material for the presence of M. tuberculosis: sputum and blood of patients with TBL using methods:
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture on Levenshtein-Jensen medium. For PCR, amplification was carried out
on a T1 thermal cycler (Biometra). The immune status was studied by the method of indirect immunofluorescence reaction
(RIF) with monoclonal antibodies CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and the ratio of CD4+\CD8+ (immunoregulatory index
- IRI) was calculated. Job design is a prospective study. Statistical processing SPSS16.0 programs using. The value of
the Fisher angular transformation φ was determined and confidence intervals of CI were calculated (M±tm; t=2.0; p<0.05).
Result of study: all patients with TBL had a positive PCR result. A positive result of the culture method (culture+) was
noted in 38/74.5% of 51 examined patients with TBL at admission. After 2 months of chemotherapy PCR+ was in all examined
TBL patients, culture+ was detected in 11/47.8% of 23 patients. The combined use of PCR and culture showed
a reduced detection of M. tuberculosis during chemotherapy (p<0.05). Upon admission, 74.5% of M. tuberculosis using
culture was detected. After 2 months of treatment, 47.8% of M. tuberculosis was detected. In the course of chemotherapy
in the culture-positive group, there was an increase (p<0.05) in most parameters of cellular immunity (CD3+, CD4+,
CD8+). In the culture-negative group, there was an increase (p<0.05) in CD3+ and IRI. Thus, studies have shown the relationship
between cellular immunity and the result culture of M. tuberculosis.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Indirect electrochemical oxidation of blood in the treatment of patients with surgical diseases of the abdominal organs on the background of diabetes mellitus
Authors: Kultaev U.T. , Zholdoshbekov E.Zh.
Pages: 62-65
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The results of the application of sodium hypochlorite solution in 35 patients with acute destructive cholecystitis
and appendicitis are presented. In order to prevent complications and treat endotoxicosis, 0.06% sodium hypochlorite solution was used in the subclavian vein in an amount of 200 ml daily. The course of treatment is 4-5 injections.
Analysis of the results of the use of sodium hypochlorite showed that there is a decrease in the blood sugar level,
the number of leukocytes and the normalization of the leukocyte index of intoxication.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Infectious and inflammatory complications in patients with traumatic brain injury
Authors: Kalykov T.S., Kalyev K.M., Yrysov K.B.
Pages: 39-46
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Introduction. Despite the seeming theoretical completeness of the problem of studying traumatic brain injury, there are a number of issues that are controversial or insufficiently covered. There is no clear differentiation of reactive aseptic meningitis and bacterial purulent meningitis in its early stages. Objective. Improving the results of treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury by developing tactics, substantiating the pathogenetic orientation of prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory complications in the postoperative period. Material and methods. An analysis of management results of 127 patients (men - 109, women - 18) with traumatic brain injury and infectious and inflammatory complications was presented. Results. For the first time, infectious and inflammatory complications of traumatic brain injury in the postoperative period were identified as an independent object of study. The characteristic and comprehensive assessment of infectious and inflammatory complications after neurosurgical interventions in traumatic brain injury is given. Based on a comprehensive study, the main patterns of the development of infectious and inflammatory complications in the postoperative period have been studied. The role of the nature of surgical intervention and surgical method in their development is shown, the structural prerequisites for the development of complications are indicated. New methods of studying infectious and inflammatory complications using modern technologies are proposed. Conclusions. The most common infection in the area of surgical intervention was osteomyelitis of the bone flap. The most frequent causative agent of infection was coagulase-negative staphylococci (34.8%), followed by Propionebacterium species (26.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21.7%).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Influence of COVID-19 on the morphofunctional state of (peribronchial) lymph nodes of the lungs
Authors: Mukashev M.Sh., Turganbaev A.E., Toktosun uulu B.
Pages: 26-31
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The article contains a message about morphological changes in regional lung bleeding in deaths from COVID-
19.
The objects of the study were peribronchial inflammatory nodes, subjected to histoprocessing and morphological examination
when stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
It has been established that lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophage cells, deposits of fibrin and fibrin-like masses, erythrocyte
sludge and blood clots in the vessels prevail in the inflammatory nodes in the cell section. Such changes are
characteristic of the exudative and proliferative phase of diffuse alveolar damage in the lungs at death from COVID-19.
FRONT LINE
Innovative technologies in improving the performance of the diagnostic service
Authors: Albaev R.K.
Pages: 11-17
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Introduction. The high informative effective activity of innovative technologies introduced into the practical work of the diagnostic service of a multidisciplinary hospital in the form of a preventive medicine department functioning in the Check-up format, a laboratory of personalized genomic diagnostics, centers of nuclear medicine, CT and MRI studies is shown. The data obtained from the analysis of the use of innovative high-precision diagnostic technologies are presented and an assessment of their informative effectiveness in identifying early forms of diseases and pre-pathological signs of hereditary and oncological diseases that contribute to the timely taking of therapeutic and recreational measures is given.
Objective. To analyze the state and evaluate the effectiveness of the introduction and use of innovative diagnostic technologies in the practice of a multidisciplinary hospital.
Methods. The activities of the Department of Preventive Medicine in the Check-up format, quantitative and structural indicators of the laboratory of genomic diagnostics, nuclear medicine centers, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic tomography (MRI) studies with an assessment of the informativeness of each method in the diagnosis of early or pre-pathological forms of various hereditary and oncological diseases.
Results. The use of innovative technology in the form of a Check-up made it possible in a very short time (only 1-2 days) to conduct a full screening examination of persons from among the attached population, identify early forms of the disease or signs of various diseases and timely organize therapeutic measures in the presence of identified pathological processes or measures to level their risk factors and improve patients' health. The use of innovative non- and minimally invasive diagnostic methods made it possible to make an accurate early diagnosis (or pre-pathological diagnosis of diseases) and determine further adequate tactics of treatment and rehabilitation of patients according to approved clinical protocols.
Conclusion. Innovative technologies introduced into the practice of the diagnostic service of the multidisciplinary hospital have shown high informative effectiveness based on the widened range of high-precision methods, including the services of the department of preventive medicine in the Check-up format, the laboratory of personalized genomic diagnostics, nuclear medicine centers, CT and MRI studies.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Interleukin-4 and interleukin-6 levels in the blood of multi-resistant tuberculosis patients with drug allergy
Authors: Dudenko E.V., Sydykova S., Zhanybekov I. Zh.
Pages: 28-32
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Drug allergy (DA) is one of the main types of adverse events in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
An allergic reaction develops under the influence of cytokines (CT). The aim of the study: the purpose of the study was
the production of interleukins IL-4, IL-6 and cytokine balance (CB) in patients with MDR-TB with DA. Materials and
methods. The object of the study was 80 MDR-TB patients with DA on anti-tuberculosis drugs according to clinical
signs. Treatment regimen: standard (SR) - 50/62.5%, short-term (ST) - 10/12.5% and individual (IR) – 20/25.0% of patients.
The average age is 34.0±3.8 years. The study material is blood serum. The research method is solid-phase enzyme
immunoassay (Sandwich method), «Awareness Technology» equipment and «Vector-Best» reagent kits. Spontaneous
production of IL-4 and IL-6 was studied. Design: a prospective and retrospective study. Statistical processing was carried
out using the SPSS16.0 software package. Results of the study. The concentration of IL-6 exceeded the norm in 38/47.5%,
IL-4 in 2/2.5% of 80 MDR-TB patients (p<0.05). There was a statistical difference between IL-4 and IL-6 (p<0.05) in
terms of SR and IR. The CB made up: SR (18,1±3,0/1,3±0,1=13,9), IR (31,4±5,8/2,7±0,2=11,8) and ST
(15,3±4,5/3,2±0,3=4,8). Consequently, the most active inflammatory allergy reaction was noted in SR (CB=13.9). Conclusion.
The study of the production of IL-4, IL-6 and the IL-6/IL-4 ratio contributes to the assessment of the activity of
the allergy inflammatory response in DA in MDR-TB patients.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Intracranial meningiomas: correlations between clinical picture, histopathology and genetic markers
Authors: Yrysov K.B. , Arstanbekov N. A.
Pages: 41-46
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Goal. Solving the question of whether there are certain genetic markers that correlate with specific clinical
characteristics of meningiomas, including multiplicity, relapses and erosion of the cranial vault.
Methods. Thirty-eight meningioma patients were selected for this study. During the operation, blood and tumor samples
were taken for histopathological, cytogenetic and molecular analysis. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomes
1p and 22q was investigated, and the NF2 gene on 22q12.2 was tested for the presence of pathogenic mutations.
The results obtained. The most frequent localization of tumors were convexital (25%) and parasagittal (21%). Histology
results showed that 86.8% of patients had grade I tumors, and the rest had grade II tumors. Pathogenic nonsense mutation
R341X in the NF2 gene was detected in only one patient. LOH on each of chromosomes 1p and 22q was observed in
44.7% of patients. Significant associations were found between the presence of certain tumor characteristics and the male
sex (p = 0.0059) and 22q LOH (p = 0.0425). We calculated that the presence of 22q LOH increases the probability of developing
a tumor that exhibits multiplicity, recurrence or erosion of the cranial vault in humans by about four times (OR
= 4.8; 95% CI: 1.2–23.4). The correction for gender increased this effect (OR = 6.1; 95% CI: 1.1–48.7).
Conclusions. The data obtained show that male patients and meningioma patients with 22q LOH are more likely to
develop tumors showing multiplicity, recurrence or erosion of the cranial vault. We recommend that this group of patients
be monitored more closely. Further studies are needed to determine the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy in this scenario.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Introduction of BPaL for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Myrzaliev B.B., Toktogonova A.A., Sakmamatov K.M.
Pages: 92-96
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Administration of Bedaquiline, Pretomanide and Linezolid - BPaL is a new fully oral 6-month regimen consisting
of bedaquiline, a new TB drug pretomanide and linezolid approved by WHO to use in operational research conditions
for the patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB).
Review of the situation and estimation of the TB drugs cost for treatment of the one patient according to the BPaL regimen
in comparison with the conventional treatment regimens for DR-TB.
The National Center of Phthisiology (NCF), with the support of KNCV, has started preparing for the use of the BPaL
regime in the Kyrgyz Republic (KR) since 2021. During this period, a guide on the use of BPaL in the Kyrgyz Republic
was prepared, which was signed by the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic in early 2021. Training materials
were prepared, according to which all key specialists of the tuberculosis service were trained, with a focus on the central
council and the Republican Tuberculosis Hospital (RPTB) in Kara-Balta, where treatment of all patients on BРaL
was planned. despite the availability of regulatory documents, trainings, availability of drugs and eligible patients the
patient’s enrolment going slowly. Introduction of the BPaL regime over the next 3 years can save the state up to
460,000 US dollars.
The BPaL treatment regime can help the country significantly improve the effectiveness of treatment success rate of
the patients with DR-TB and rational use of the State and the Global Fund budget used for the procurement of the second-
line TB drugs for the Kyrgyz Republic.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Ionization potentials and numerical sequences of alternated type
Authors: Kasymova R.O., Azhimatova M.R. , Zheleznyak A.O., Kudayarova M.Zh.
Pages: 14-20
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Introduction. Ionization potentials are a characteristic of substances that characterize the energy of removing an electron from the outer and inner orbitals and the stability of the molecular system as a whole. On the basis of ionization potentials, the structure of a substance, its possible rearrangement occurring during ionization and depending on the excitation energy of atoms (oscillators) is studied. These are rearrangements that lead to the appearance of ions, radicals, ion-radicals, clusters, and other compounds. Also ionization potentials determine the stability of molecules, their redox and photochemical ability, biological activity. Thus, the biological activity (toxicity) of atoms and their compounds correlates with their valency. Equally important is the spread of toxic compounds and their stability in the external environment, which determines morbidity of humans and the population, the so-called microelementoses, etc. Knowledge of ionization potentials also makes it possible to synthesize substances with a given biological activity and other parameters. Ionization potentials are calculated by quantum chemical methods, as well as from molecular spectroscopy data. Regularities in the behavior of ionization potentials are studied in the courses of general chemistry and in the division "Matter structure". They are also reflected in reference books and in various publications on the subject. The aim of the study - In this paper, we consider the possibility of using a method based on the theoretical-numerical approach to the calculation of the first ionization potentials of some atoms and molecules which is also simpler and more accessible than quantum-chemical methods for calculating ionization potentials. Materials and methods. А combination (theoretical-numerical) approach was used in our study, which in our opinion can provide the most important information, tentatively, for predicting higher degrees of valency of atoms and molecules, for which there are no reference data in the literature. The data on ionization potentials given in the reference literature served as the material for the study and comparison with the available data. Results. Some examples of the use of theoretical-numerical sequences for studying the redox processes of some organic substances are given as well as estimated data of the first ionization potentials for some atoms. Conclusion. It is shown that the approach we propose can be used to calculate the ionization potentials of atoms of the Periodic System, while the discrepancy between calculated and experimental data is within 5-8%.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Is Metformin beneficial in ischemic etiology chronic heart failure patients at the insulin resistant stage?
Authors: Kurmanbekova B.T., Rustambekova A.R., Noruzbaeva A.M.
Pages: 21-32
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Chronic heart failure (CHF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) often coexist. CHF is currently considered as
a state of insulin resistance (IR) and is associated with a deterioration in the prognosis and quality of life of patients. The
beneficial effect of metformin on the course of cardiovascular diseases, CHF in particular, in patients with type 2 diabetes,
has been established in numerous studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of metformin on the clinical
course of ischemic etiology CHF in patients at the IR stage. Material and methods. In the course of an open, prospective,
randomized clinical trial of 76 patients with ischemic etiology CHF (mean age 62 (57.5-65) years, men (n=44), mean
left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 44.0 % (34-52.5)), were randomized into 2 groups: with metformin (n=39) and
without (n=37), respectively. All patients were given and explained in detail the principles of lifestyle modification. IR
was diagnosed with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5. The necessary objective (with a survey about the quality of life of patients with
CHF), laboratory and instrumental methods of research, a 6-minute walking test were tested at baseline and after 12
months of follow-up. Results. Metformin therapy was associated with an improvement in CHF-associated clinical indicators
such as : IR (HOMA-IR), aldosterone levels, functional capacity and quality of life. Also in the metformin group,
there was a significant improvement in renal function (in terms of creatinine and daily proteinuria) and mean LV EF.
Conclusion. The possibility of a favorable effect of metformin on the course of CHF of ischemic etiology in patients
without concomitant type 2 diabetes will optimize the strategy of interventions to improve the quality of life and longterm
prognosis in CHF, as well as reduce the rate of conversion to type 2 diabetes.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Issues of diagnosis and testing for blood-borne viral hepatitis (B and C) in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Tobokalova S.T., Aitieva J.T., Zairova M.T.
Pages: 32-40
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Introduction. Testing and early detection of hepatitis B and Cinfection determine indications for the services
of prevention and treatment and are akey component for effective response to the epidemic of these infections and receiving
specialized care and treatment.
The aim of the study. Analysis of the state of diagnosis of viral hepatitis B and C in Kyrgyzstan to develop a mass testing
program as a stage towards eliminating the epidemic of blood-borne viral hepatitis in the country.
Materials and methods. State Reporting Forms No. 1 “Report on infectious and parasitic disease” for 2010–2021 were
reviewed. The data of 237 patients with hepatitis B and C were analyzed, who received inpatient treatment in 2007–
2021, Bishkek. The data was processed by Epi Info 3.8.1. Results. The Kyrgyz Republic belongs to countries with high incidence of blood-borne viral hepatitis. The incidence of
acute and chronic viral hepatitis B in 2021 amounted to 29.2 per 100,000 population, and hepatitis C -10.8,cumulative
incidence of hepatitis B and C 40.1 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of the Delta hepatitis among HBV-infected
persons reached 33–47%, which can be estimated to be about 120–160 million patients with hepatitis D. Based on the
results of testing by some healthcare organizations, the hepatitis B virus infection of the population of
varies from 4.6% to 7.3% and hepatitis C - from 3.1% to 7.7%. Data of official statistics (Department of Disease Prevention
and State Sanitary-Epidemiologic Surveillance and the Centre of Electronic Healthcare)on the prevalence of
acute and chronic hepatitis B and C differ considerably. There is no information about the exact number of patients with
all forms of blood borne hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer in their outcome.
Conclusions. To ensure the access of patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis in their outcome to the services
of diagnostics, highly effective methods of treatment and preventionit is needed to conduct a phased mass testing of the
adult population for blood-borne viral hepatitis in order to determine the true number of such patients.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Knowledge, attitudes, and practice to COVID-19 prevention among the adult population of Bishkek and Naryn, Kyrgyz Republic, 2021
Authors: Malysheva M.A., Zikriarova S. M., Nabirova D.A.
Pages: 130-136
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Introduction. The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) originated in China and affected almost the entire world
in early 2020. To understand and inform about effective public health measures, we conducted a survey of knowledge,
attitudes and practices among the adult population of the cities of Bishkek and Naryn, the Kyrgyz Republic.
Research methods. In August 2021, a cross-sectional study was conducted with a survey of the adult population of the
cities of Bishkek and Naryn, the Kyrgyz Republic. A simple two-stage cluster sampling method was used to recruit study
participants. The analysis was carried out using the statistical software Epi Info 7. The variables were summarized as
frequency and percentage.
Results. The survey was conducted among the adult population of Bishkek 1,390 (86%) and Naryn 234 (14%). A total of
1,624 questionnaires were analyzed, the response rate was 95%, of which 918 (57%) were men and 706 (43%) were
women. The average age of the study participants was 35 years, the standard deviation was 14.9. 1490 (92%) of respondents
knew that COVID-19 can spread from person to person when people are in close contact, 1371 (84%) knew that a
person infected with COVID-19 can transmit the virus to others, not even symptoms. 1446 (89) noted that it is important
to wear a mask, but only 1255 (77) respondents wear a mask, 1440 (89) noted that it is important to observe physical distance
indoors, however, only 955 (59) of the respondents surveyed observe it, 1556 (96) said that it is important to wash
their hands after visiting public places.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Lake Louise acute mountain sickness score for assessing acute mountain sickness in workers in mountain area in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Ashyrbaev A.A., Kadyrov M.S., Tolbashieva G.U., Djuzumalieva K.S.
Pages: 128-134
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Introduction. Since 1991, the Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Score (LLAMSS) has been used around the world as a diagnostic tool. In the Kyrgyz Republic, this scoring system is not used in most cases for various reasons. Health care workers working in remote locations in mountainous areas should make greater use of the LLAMSS for diagnosing this pathological condition. Purpose of the study- To study the significance of the LLAMSS for assessing AMS in shift workers in mountainous areas in the Kyrgyz Republic. Materials and research methods.200 people were examined, working on a rotational basis at the mine at an altitude of 3800 meters above sea level. All surveyed workers underwent a medical examination six hours after arrival at work and were given a questionnaire containing vital signs, physical parameters of a person, occupational questions and the LLAMSS. The statistical program SPSS was used to process the data and identify the relationship between various indicators. Results.The use of the LLAMSS has shown to be a reliable and informative tool for diagnosing AMS. None of the surveyed workers experienced difficulties in understanding its main parameters. Comparison of the LLAMSS and physical parameters in workers was carried out, it did not show the relationship between the incidence of AMS, physical data of
workers and occupational factors. Conclusion. In world practice, LLAMSS is a tool for diagnosing AMS. At the same time, in the Kyrgyz Republic, medical workers in the highlands do not have enough knowledge about the methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AMS. This pathology is known only to a small group of specialists involved in mountain medicine. In the Kyrgyz Republic, thousands of people work on rotations in the highlands. To bridge this gap, it is necessary to create clinical protocols for medical workers working in mountainous areas. They should describe the main pathological conditions encountered in mountainous areas, including prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AMS.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Laparoscopic method of treatment of combined liver and greater oil echinococcosis. Clinical case
Authors: Toktogaziev B.T., Omorov K.R ., Hamidjonov Y.H., Mikukhin D.S.
Pages: 72-76
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The problem of echinococcosis is urgent, because the disease is quite common, at the same time the frequency
of diagnostic errors, complications and mortality in multiple echinococcosis is high. The aim of this work was to estimate
the clinical and epidemiological peculiarities of the liver and greater omentum echinococcosis, diagnostics of the disease
and results of treatment in the present conditions. A clinical case is presented, the patient R. 1976 patient was diagnosed
with hepatic echinococcosis and greater omentum, which was revealed spontaneously. On admission she was examined
additionally. Laparoscopic echinococcosisectomy of the liver and greater omentum was carried out. Intraoperatively the
diagnosis was confirmed. The patient was discharged home on the 5th day.
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Legal and regulatory basis of the prevention and control of viral hepatitis in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Aidaraliev A.A., Akmatov I.M., Kasymova R.O., Matkerimov A.T., Keldibekov R.J.
Pages: 59-69
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Introduction. A methodology is presented about the need to develop a “road map for the prevention, treatment and control of viral hepatitis in the Kyrgyz Republic”. Materials of regulatory and legal documents of the healthcare system, government decisions and state programs concerning or addressing the problems of viral hepatitis were used. The scientometric approach offers the basic principles and strategic steps for the implementation of national programs on a
single platform of epidemiologic surveillance and treatment (clinical protocols), including the specific and non-specific prevention of viral hepatitis, taking into account the approach of the Global Health Sector Strategies, respectively for HIV, virus hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections for 2022–2030. Purpose: Regulatory situation regardibg the problems of viral hepatitis in the Kyrgyz Republic. Methods. Analysis of regulatory acts (laws, government decisions) and state programs for virus hepatitis.
Results. The Kyrgyz state has developed regulatory acts (laws, government decisions, orders) for all levels of the country’s
healthcare as well as State programs aimed at solving the problems of viral hepatitis. However, despite the certain positive
dynamics of some indicators for developments in viral hepatitis vaccination, treatment, diagnosis, etc. the epidemiological
situation still remains tense in the last two decades. To a certain extent, weaknesses in regulatory sphere related to are
identified aimed at solving this problem.
Conclusion. Today due to high viral hepatitis burden its prevention and control is a priority for the national health system. In the context of global approaches, the WHO, respectively, adopted the Global Health Sector Strategies, respectively for HIV, virus hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections for 2022–2030. It is proposed to implement the national project
“Roadmap for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis in the Kyrgyz Republic”.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Legal basis for regulating the problem of food poisoning in the context of food safety of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Aidaraliev A.A., Akmatov I.M., Kasymova R.O., Keldibekov R.J.
Pages: 66-75
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Introduction. Food products are the most important factor affecting human life, which requires state regulation
of compliance with the quality and safety of food products at the legislative and economic level. In this aspect, the problem
of production and sale of high-quality food products, as well as issues of normative-legal regulation of food poisoning,
is acute for the Kyrgyz Republic today. It is clear that the fundamental task of the state is to constantly improve the regulatory
and legal mechanisms for ensuring safe nutrition of citizens of the country. Along with this, there is an urgent
need to develop state regulatory institutions in cooperation with interested communities to ensure quality control and
food safety. In the presented work, an attempt is made to analyze the legal basis for ensuring food safety in the Kyrgyz
Republic.
Objective: A preformative to improve the normative-legal regulation of food poisoning and food safety problems in the
Kyrgyz Republic.
Methods. Analysis of the normative-legal regulation of food poisoning problems in the context of food safety in the
Kyrgyz Republic and in the CIS countries (laws, Government resolutions, Codes). Results. Today, normative legal acts (laws, government resolutions, codes and orders) require immediate improvement
to solve the problems of food poisoning in the context of food safety. In the current regulatory and legal acts regarding
the problem of food safety and food poisoning have advantages and disadvantages, which requires regulation in the
context of international standards.
Conclusion. The food safety of the state is one of the most important priorities for today. From this it is necessary to
distinguish two main principles that need to befixed in legislation - the principle of ensuring the safety of food for
human health and responsibility for the production of dangerous food raw materials.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Long-term results of treatment of patients with cholelithiasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Authors: Kurmanov R.A., Talaybekova A.T. , Sadykov A.A., Sadabaev M.Z.
Pages: 82-87
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Introduction. Cholelithiasisis considered one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which
are detected in 20-30% of the population mainly of working age, tends to increase and expand the age range towards rejuvenation.
In this paper, the authors investigated the long-term results of treatment of patients with cholelithiasis after
laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
The purpose of the work. To evaluate the mineral Long-term results of treatment of patients with cholelithiasis after laparoscopic
cholecystectomy water "Jalal-Abad" to improve the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with
cholelithiasisin the early postoperative period.
Materials and methods of research. In the Jalal-Abad regional Hospital in the surgical department, 302 patients with
cholelithiasis from 2017 to 2022 were examined. The patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients were
divided into two groups: control and main.The control group consisted of 104 patients who were received in the postoperative
period – traditional complex treatment. Of these, 68 (65.4%) patients underwent surgery with chronic calculouscholecystitis
and 36 (34.6%) patients with a range of acute calculouscholecystitis. The main group consists of 198 patients, of them with chronic calculouscholecystitis - 124 (62.1%) and 74 (37.9%) patients
with acute calculouscholecystitis. In the early postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the reception
of Jalal-Abad mineral water was additionally connected to the traditional treatment according to the developed scheme.
Long–term results of the study in 45 patients with cholelithiasis, the control group - without the use of mineral water
"Jalal–Abad" in the early postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and in 51 patients with cholelithiasis
- the main group with the use of mineral water "Jalal-Abad" in the early postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy
terms from 6 to 12 months. 68 patients were examined on an outpatient basis and 32% inpatient in the Jalal-
Abad regional Hospital in the surgical department. The quality of life was studied for periods from 3 to 6 and from 6 to
12 months.
Results. Thus, studies have shown that carrying out a rehabilitation course treated in the early stages of the mineral water
"Jalal-Abad" after laparoscopic cholecystectomy contributes to the normalization of liver function, improving well-being.
After discharge of patients from the hospital, sanatorium treatment should be continued, and the main method of treatment
should be the use of mineral waters "Jalal-Abad".
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
LOWER URINARY TRACT DYSFUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN (FORMS, PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS)
Pages: 63-69
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis
Authors: Dzhaparalieva N.T., Altymysheva N.A. , Dikanbaeva K.E., Tairov B.M.
Pages: 16-24
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Introduction. The severity of neurological disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is more closely related to
the general atrophy of the brain, which is manifested by the expansion of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces and a
decrease in the volume of the parenchyma of the brain.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the morphometric parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis depending on the
type of course, duration of the disease and degree of disability.
Subjects and methods of research. MRI-morphometric study was performed in 25 patients with remitting and secondary
progressive types of MS.
Results. The MRI-morphometric study with MS allowed to assess the degree of brain atrophy depending on the clinical
and neurological features.
Сonclusions in summary. To assess atrophic changes in MS, it is convenient to use linear methods of measurement
(measuring the width of the ventricles, the thickness of the parenchyma of the brain, the area of the calloused body),
which do not require the presence of special equipment, computer programs and personnel training.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Mathematical modelling of COVID-19 vaccination strategies in Kyrgyzstan and mortality
Authors: Moldokmatova A.O., Dooronbekova A.Z., Zhumalieva C.K, Mukambetov A.S., Kubatova A.K., Usenbaev N.T., Osmonov A.J., Ibragimov S.M., Abdyldaev T.O., Kutmanova A.Z., Luzia Freitas, Lisa Jane White
Pages: 24-33
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Since the end of 2020, work has begun around the world to vaccinate people against COVID-19. But due to
the insufficient supply of vaccines in resource-limited countries, data on COVID-19 in the country were analyzed to determine
effective vaccination strategies. Through age-dependant SIERS deterministic model, the paper compares four
hypothetical age-dependant vaccination strategies and their impact on the epidemic in Kyrgyzstan. So, by March 2022, public health can reduce cases of COVID-19 and the resulting mortality, in the case of increased attention
to high-risk groups (over 50 years old) and moderate vaccination of people with a high incidence (20-49 years
old). It should also be noted the importance of combining vaccination with non-pharmaceutical interventions (wearing
masks and distancing), which will lead to a further decrease in morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and indirectly
reduce mortality from other causes too. Thus, if this scenario is observed, the mortality rate in the country can be reduced
from 27,000 to 16,000 over the simulation period (March 2020 - March 2022). According to the simulation results, vaccination
is an effective measure of protection against COVID-19, but the effect is increased when combined with vaccination
of non-pharmaceutical interventions. When focusing on the high-risk group, morbidity decreases, then mortality.
And thus, the burden on the health care system is reduced. But to achieve the effect of crowd control of the next peak in
morbidity and mortality, it is necessary to increase coverage with high morbidity (20-49 years).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Mathematical modelling of COVID-19 vaccination strategies in Kyrgyzstan and the burden on the health system
Authors: Moldokmatova A.O., Dooronbekova A.Z., Zhumalieva C.K, Mukambetov A.S., Kubatova A.K., Usenbaev N.T., Osmonov A.J., Ibragimov S.M., Abdyldaev T.O., Kutmanova A.Z., Luzia Freitas, Lisa Jane White
Pages: 14-23
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In December 2020, an unprecedented vaccination against COVID-19 has started worldwide. As the vaccine
supply is currently not sufficient for most countries to vaccinate their entire eligible populations, the defining of effective vaccination strategies may help with reducing the infection spread and related burden on the health system. The existing evidence suggests that disease severity and mortality differ by age, so that age-dependant vaccination can be considered as an important and priority strategy. Through age-dependant SIERS deterministic model, the paper compares four hypothetical age-dependant vaccination strategies and their impact on the epidemic in Kyrgyzstan. In the short-term horizon (until March 2022), the primary focus on high-risk groups (over 50 years old) with some roll out of the vaccination among high-incidence groups (20-49 years old) may decrease symptomatic cases and COVID-19 attributable deaths. On the other hand, the impact on the overall estimated number of COVID-19 cases with a comparatively small coverage of high-incidence groups (15-25% only based on the current vaccine availability) will not be that substantial. Combination of the vaccination with non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as mask wearing and social distancing, will further decrease the incidence and mortality. Moreover, it may have an indirect impact on the all-cause mortality. Thus, the deaths due to other reasons in this scenario can be reduced from 27,000 to 16,000 over the simulation period (March 2020 – March 2022). The above results and emerging evidence on vaccines suggest that vaccination is more effective in flattening the epidemic and reducing the mortality if supported by non-pharmaceutical interventions. In a short-term horizon, the focus on high-risk groups may reduce the burden on the health system and thus result in fewer deaths. However, the herd effect in delaying another peak may only be achieved by reaching high-incidence groups more broadly.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Measles and rubella outbreaks in the Osh region of the Kyrgyz Republic -2023  (January-May)
Authors: Abdimunova B.T., Dautov T.T., Turusbekova A.K., Abzhaparov A.Z.
Pages: 58-65
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Introduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) has been implementing a program for the elimination of measles and rubella in the world, including in the Kyrgyz Republic, for 20 years. Despite routine vaccination, measles
eradication is not smooth. Unstable vaccination, refusal of the vaccine precedes the preservation of the urgency of the
problem of measles and rubella. Over the past 10 years, 159 cases of rubella and 287 cases of measles have been registered
in the Kyrgyz Republic. At the same time, the largest number of cases of the disease this year falls on the Osh region, from January 2023 to the present, an outbreak of measles has been registered in 238 cases. The purpose of the study was to describe and assess the epidemic situation of measles in the Osh region of the Kyrgyz
Republic and to identify aggravation factors.
Materials and methods. Research methods epidemiological investigation, descriptive and evaluative epidemiological
methods. The materials for the study were statistical reporting data on the incidence of measles and rubella, laboratory
data and cases of diseases treated in the hospital by residents of the Osh region.
Results and discussion. The conducted epidemiological investigations showed that in the regions of the Osh region, a
high proportion of registered cases were the city of Osh (76 people /31.9%) and the Kara-Sui district (108/45.4%). This
is characterized by nosocomial infections, a large number of internal migration in Osh and Kara Sui district. The age distribution of morbidity cases ranged from 1 year to 34 years and a high proportion is under the age of 1 year. The analysis
of the immune status of the sick confirms that persons not vaccinated for measles were the causes of new outbreaks.
Conclusion. The increase in the incidence of measles was noted in all age categories with a high proportion between the
ages of 1 and 3 years. The factors of exacerbation of the epidemic situation of measles in the Osh region were: insufficient
compliance with anti-epidemic measures when identifying a patient at the hospital level, the first case of measles was
hospitalized in a general ward for treatment. Internal migration and refusal of vaccinations remain risks of new cases of
diseases.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Medical and social aspects of the elderly age in the conditions of the city Bishkek
Authors: Suleimanova G.T., Kurmanova A.R., Kasiev N.K., Kasymova R.O.
Pages: 114-122
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The aging of the population is one of the most important demographic processes in the modern world, it is a
complex, multifactorial, medical and social problem. The trends of rapid aging of the population are mostly characteristic
of the whole planet, especially for low- and middle-income countries, where a threefold increase in the proportion of
people over 60 years of age is expected – 46 million (2015) to 147 million (2050). The manifestation of such patterns
can be predicted for the Kyrgyz Republic, where people over 50 increased from 12.0% in 1999 to 16% in 2019. The
highest proportion of elderly people goes to the citizens of the capital from 14.7% to 17.9%, respectively. Moreover, all
these processes are accompanied by a significant increase in the life expectancy of Kyrgyzstanis, averaging from 67.0 to
71.5 years in the country and from 68.4 to 74.6 years in Bishkek, respectively. Against this background, practically in the
modern system of healthcare and social welfare of the Kyrgyz state there is no personnel potential and organizations to
provide gerontological care to the population. Consequently, in order to respond more effectively to the aging of the population,
the public health system needs an approach that will prevent and reverse the decline in the functional ability and
their dependency on outside help in old age. It is necessary to implement such an approach as soon as possible for the
country's state institutions to create favorable conditions for the elderly with an improved mechanism for monitoring the
demographic situation and its forecasting for the next three decades.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Metabolic role of nitric oxide precursors in atherosclerosis from the biochemistry point of view
Authors: Akynbekova N.B., Makhmudova Z.A., Taalaibekova M.T., Mamyshov A.Zh.
Pages: 33-38
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Atherosclerosis is currently considered one of the main problems of our century. It is predicted that by 2025,
the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases will reach 30% of the world's population [1]. Cardiovascular diseases are one
of the main causes of death. Every year, more than 17.5 million people die from cardiovascular pathology, in Kyrgyzstan
this figure reaches more than 18 thousand people. Due to the wide prevalence, high level of complications and mortality
rates, the prevention of cardiovascular diseases is becoming an increasingly priority area of medicine. Recently, the metabolic
direction has been intensively developed in medicine, the purpose of which is to analyze disorders of cellular metabolism
in cardiovascular pathologies. Impairment of function, which can lead to an increase in the permeability of
plasma components, especially low density lipoproteins and their deposition in the subendothelial space, can be considered
one of the earliest phenomena that occurs in atherosclerosis [2,3]. L-arginine, as a precursor of nitric oxide, has a positive
effect on the regulation of vascular tone and hemodynamics, is a mediator in the regulation of lipid and protein levels.
The effectiveness of the use of nitric oxide precursors during the development of a number of pathological conditions
(for example, endothelial dysfunction) has been proven. The study of the literature data of domestic and foreign authors
has shown that, to date, no experimental studies have been conducted in the Kyrgyz Republic to study the features of the
action of L-arginine in high altitude conditions, where special attention should be paid to the effectiveness of this amino
acid in such clinically extremely severe conditions as injuries, burns, hunger, stress.
ASSISTANCE TO A PRACTICAL DOCTOR
Method of drainage of the abdominal cavity with widespre adappendicular peritonitis in children
Authors: OrozoevU.D., Omurbekov T.O., Kadyrkulov A.Zh.
Pages: 68-73
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Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical disease in children. Complicated forms of appendicitis in children is an urgent problem in pediatric surgery. There are features of the peritoneum characteristic of the child's body in the form of an inability to limit and a greater tendency to spread and generalize purulent processes. In complicated forms, in combination with the main therapy, various types of drains are installed intraoperatively into the abdominal cavity in order to evacuate the exudate. This article describes the method of drainage of the peritoneal cavity in children with peritonitis. The use of this method of drainage allows to improve the course of the postoperative period and reduce intraabdominal purulent complications.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Methodological and organizational approaches to implementing a quality management system in a multidisciplinary clinic
Authors: Zhunusova M.M.
Pages: 22-29
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The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan has included the Quality Management System into the list
of promising new innovative management technologies that should be implemented in the practice of management
of healthcare organizations.
Solution of these tasks to a great extent depends on the correct setting of goals, quality of strategic management,
implementation of philosophy and principles of quality management system, organization and training of teamwork,
organization of work on elimination of losses and maximum effective management of resources. In our opinion,
the ISO 9001:2015 standards answer the question of what needs to be done to create a basis in the organization for
continuous improvement of activities and satisfaction of consumers needs for high quality medical care.
The work uses the material based on the results of the analysis of the multidisciplinary clinic. During the implementation of the quality management system, it was based on the principles of universal quality management,
which is a management model for the implementation of a systematic approach to process management in order
to meet the requirements and expectations of consumers and all stakeholders.
The developed and implemented quality management system of the multidisciplinary clinic is aimed at reducing
losses and creating conditions that will allow the organization to realize its potential and improve competitiveness,
quality of services, increase customer satisfaction and increase personnel motivation.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Microbial composition and genetic resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics in patients with recurrent radicular cysts of jaws
Authors: Rachkov A.A.
Pages: 3-8
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Introduction. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial area, such as radicular cyst jaws are
polymicrobial. Determination of the qualitative composition of the microbial flora and its genetic resistance to
antibacterial drugs in the area of the bone defect may be important in the choice of tactics for treating patients.
The aim of the study to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbial flora in patients
with relapses of radicular cysts with an assessment of the genetic resistance of pathogens to various groups of
antibacterial drugs. Material and methods. We observed 40 patients with recurrent radicular cysts jaws who underwent cystectomy
reoperation. In order to obtain data on the composition of the microbial flora in the area of the bone defect at the
time of the operation and in the postoperative period, additional molecular biological studies were carried out.
Results. According to the results of molecular biological research, anaerobic microflora of the oral cavity was
revealed, which included two main groups of periodontopathogenic and stabilizing microorganisms. The results
of PCR studies for the presence of genetic resistance of pathogens showed the following. In all samples (n = 40),
the resistance of microorganisms to β-lactams and tetracyclines was determined. Resistance to macrolides and
fluoroquinolones was detected in 50% (n = 20) of the samples. Metronidazole resistance has not been determined
in any sample.
Conclusion. The study made it possible to establish the presence of 3 or more periodontopathogenic pathogens
in the cavities of cysts at a concentration of 103 GE / ml and higher, which indicates the association of these microorganisms and their primary role in the occurrence of the disease
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Modelling of the potential effects of lockdown release interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic curve in Kyrgyzstan
Authors: Moldokmatova A.O., Dooronbekova A.Z., Mukambetov A.S., Kubatova A.K., Lisa Jane White, Kukeshova M.N. , Estebesova A.M., Dzhangaziyev B.I., Zhoroyev A.A., Abdykerimov S.T., Kasymov O.T., Zhumalieva C.K
Pages: 3-13
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In light of limited evidence on the nature of COVID-19 epidemic in Kyrgyzstan, the mathematical
modelling has been applied as an additional tool to support the policy makers in the decision process. The model
aimed at accessing the potential effect of two approaches on the further course of the epidemic and its implication
on the specified health system capacity: the full lockdown release and the managed release with various intensity
and duration of interventions. For the analysis we employed the web-based interface of the dynamic SEIR agestructured
model, developed by COVID-19 Modelling (CoMo) Consortium in collaboration with Oxford Modelling
Group of the Global Heath. The model demonstrated that the strict mobility suppression on its own may
not become an effective intervention and must be followed by proper and carefully considered exit strategies.
Contact tracing, shielding of risk groups, including COVID-19 cases and their contacts and physical social distancing
are assumed to be effective in flattening the curve of the epidemic in Kyrgyzstan. However, the existing
health system capacity is predicted to be overwhelmed even in the most favourable scenario, suggesting the necessity
for the better preparation of the system by increasing the availability of surge and ICU beds and ventilators.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
MODERATE CONGICTIVE DISORDERS IN
Pages: 56-60
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PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION OR MEDICAL PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION
Modern approaches to continuous education in emergency medicine
Authors: Omukeeva G.K., Chubakov T.Ch. , Turgunbaev T.E.
Pages: 121-129
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Access to high quality continuing professional education (CPE) is essential for healthcare professionals to
maintain and expand their competencies in the ever-evolving global information field. Currently, continuing medical education
(CME) is moving from a traditional passive model to a model of active and independent learning based on the
competencies of specialists. In this regard, there is a need to identify and develop new models and methods of CPE
training courses for emergency medical service (EMS) specialists. This paper reflects the experience of organizing and
conducting CPE for EMS specialists of the Kyrgyz Republic, based on international standards, recommendations, and
global practice, taking into account the needs of practical health care. The main conditions and approaches for the implementation
of the newly developed curricula were: the use of didactic lectures in an interactive mode with the demonstration
of certain skills, seminars, additional information on the board, video materials on the topics and summarizing the
learning outcomes for each topic; simulating practical classes with the help of manikins of different levels, medical equipment,
medical products, medicines; development of handouts, clinical situations on each topic; use of synchronous and
asynchronous training methods; practicing procedural skills based on the repetitive practice method; evaluating each
course at the end of it based on a five-point system questionnaire of a Likert scale to receive the feedback from participants,
allocation of additional time for the rehabilitation exam (retake). As a result of the training, the majority of health care
workers achieved good results in acquiring practical skills and abilities, which were evaluated during their work with patients.
Effective training is critical to prepare highly qualified EMS providers.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
MODERN METHODS OF TREATING PATIENTS WITH CALCULOUS  CHOLECYSTITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS
Pages: 137-144
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Modern problems of urolithiasis caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (literature review)
Authors: Kyrbashev K.D., Tazhekov A.M., Toktonaliev A.B.
Pages: 157-163
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In recent years, primary hyperparathyroidism has attracted more and more attention from doctors of various
specialties. Nephrolithiasis is one of the classic manifestations of the disease and is included in the list of absolute indications
for the removal of the formation of the parathyroid glands. The mechanism of development of nephrolithiasis
and nephrocalcinosis in PHPT is not fully understood, many studies are devoted to the study of possible predictors of
their development. It should be borne in mind that this pathological disease in our country was studied more than 30
years ago, when outdated methods of examination were used, but the method of treatment so far remains only operational,
both for the removal of parathyroid adenoma and for the removal of stones from the urinary system. The aim of the study
was to analyze scientific data on the problem of primary hyperparathyroidism. The authors of the article studied 150
sources of domestic and 100 foreign authors. At present, protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis have
been developed and approved. Given the shortage of health care budgeting in the Kyrgyz Republic, it is not possible to
implement all the necessary diagnostic and treatment measures. The main measures should be directed to diagnostic
measures, because urolithiasis is a polyetiological disease. After appropriate treatment of each patient, further monitoring
is necessary to prevent recurrence of stone formation and correct metaphylactic measures. Knowing the individual cause
of each case of this disease, it is possible to take the necessary measures in advance to prevent it, which will significantly
reduce the amount of economic costs and the number of disability among the population, as well as improve the quality
of medical services.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Kalmanbetova G.I., Kadyrov A.S., Sydykova M.M., Moidunova N.K.
Pages: 86-91
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Introduction. According to the World Health Organization, the Kyrgyz Republic is among the 18 countries
with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis infection, including
genetic diversity, markers of molecular drug resistance, and transmission routes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
strains in the Kyrgyz Republic, remain poorly understood. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been used to
determine the molecular genetic structure of the strains circulating in the country. Purpose of the study. The purpose of
the study was to describe the molecular genetic characteristics of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
based on the whole genome sequensing. Materials and methods.Whole genome sequencing was carried out at the National
Reference Laboratory of the National Center for Phthysiology under the supervision of the SNRL, Borstel, Germany.
475 MTBС isolates were tested in 2018 and 2019. Sequencing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions
on the MySeq platform, Illumina, USA. The MTBSeq protocol was used for comparative genomic analysis and the online
tools “EvolView and PhyResSe” to perform graphical representation and screen for mutations mediating resistance to
antituberculous drugs. Stata/IC version 16.1 was used for statistical analysis.Results. Using WGS, showed that the MTBC population structure in the Kyrgyz Republic mainly consists of three phylogenetic
lineages (L). These lines are L2 (Beijing), L3 (Delhi/CAS) and L4 (Euro-American) as classified by Coll, Mc-
Nerney and Niemann, Merker. The L2 strains were predominant (74.1%, 352/475), while the L3 and L4 strains accounted
for 0.8% (4/475) and 25.1% (119/475), respectively. Next, we classified the L2 and L4 strains into several MTBC sublineages.
The Beijing Central Asia (n=225), Beijing Central Asia outbreak (n=75) and Beijing Europe/Russian W148
Outbreak (n=28) subline strains are the most common strains compared to the other L2 subline strains and the L4 subline
strains. Conclusions. Using WGS, have shown that pulmonary tuberculosis in the Kyrgyz Republic is mainly caused by
L2 (Beijing) strains. Drug resistance is also associated with L2 strains, highlighting the important role of L2 strains in
the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the country. Overall, our results provide a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology
of tuberculosis in the Kyrgyz Republic and require additional molecular epidemiological studies to elucidate
the dynamics of tuberculosis in the country and, therefore, control it.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Monitoring of antibioticresistance of some topical causative agents of pyoinflammatory diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Kubanichbekov М.K., Adambekov D.A., Aldjambaeva I.S., Tsoi Andrei Rudolphovich
Pages: 40-46
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Monitoring of lipid metabolism in persons with diabetes mellitus registered in family medicine centers in Bishkek
Authors: Sultanalieva R.B., Abylova N.K.
Pages: 10-15
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Our study demonstrates the data of total cholesterol (TC) level in the blood of persons with diabetes who are
registered in the Family Medicine Centers (FMC) of Bishkek. The main cause of CVD in DM is atherosclerosis. Insulin
resistance and associated hyperinsulinemia, which has a direct atherogenic effect on the vascular wall, play a significant
role in the pathogenesis of DM2. Therefore, the strategy of CVD prevention in patients with DM, along with achieving
the targets glycemia (which are fundamental for the prevention of microvascular complications), should be based on correction
of risk factors for microvascular diseases, as primarily dyslipidemia. According to all international recommendations,
the control of blood lipids is no less important than the control of glycemia and blood pressure.
During the year, the TC was examined in 2,182 (49.1%) persons with diabetes, its average indicators were within the
target values. However, this indicator was examined unevenly in FMC, 50.9% of patients with DM were left without
control of lipid profile. Primary care doctors did not always prescribe blood cholesterol determination to patients, although
this examination is available free of charge in all PHC laboratories in Kyrgyzstan.
In 33% of patients with DM in CSM, who were included in the group, the frequency of cholesterol determination during
the year reached 5-10 times, which is economically impractical and wasteful.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Monitoring of urogenital infections in men with chronic urethroprostatites
Authors: Kovaleva (Kondratyeva)Yu.S., Neymark A.I.
Pages: 58-63
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The comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination of 480 men with suspected chronic urethroprostatitis (CP) was carried out. The collection of history, assessment of clinical symptoms of CP, study of swabs
for urogenital infections, ultrasound examination of PG with Doppler color mapping help assess severity, acuity
of the process, determine the etiology, which allows correct and timely prescribing of appropriate therapy.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
MORPHOFUNCTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS
Pages: 23-27
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
MUSCULAR DUCHENNE DYSTROPHY IN C
Pages: 82-84
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Literature review
Authors: Rakhimova F.S., Bebezov K.S., Bebezov B.K.
Pages: 158-169
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The article shows that a significant proportion of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas are non-functional, i.e., not secreting
into the blood a variety of gastrointestinal hormones and polypeptides and as a result, not accompanied by typical
clinical manifestations. Unfortunately, often the scan search starts in the detection of distant metastases of neuroendocrine
tumors. Currently, the only radical method of treatment of hormonally functioning tumors of the pancreas is surgical. It
is indicated that symptomatic therapy can be considered as a stage of preoperative preparation of the patient. The article
examines the rational and integrated use of modern Arsenal of surgical and therapeutic methods, which enable significantly
prolong life, improve its quality in patients with metastatic forms of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Neurogenic аcraturesiss for patients with the diseases of cerebrum. (Literature review)
Authors: Kaskeev D.M., Kulov B.B., Shamenova A.Ya., Erbotoeva Sh.T.
Pages: 104-108
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Freguency of met of neurogenic acraturesiss is examined in this article, factors resulting in urology complications at a
stroke. The forms of symptoms of lower urinary ways are described. Conservative and operative methods over of
treatment of neurogenic acraturesiss are brought.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
NEUROLOGICAL AND MAGNETIC RESONA
Pages: 64-67
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
ON POSSIBILITIES AND FEATURES OF MODERN IT TECHNOLOGIES IN DENTAL IMPLANTOLOGY. COMMUNICATION 2
Pages: 41-51
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
ON POSSIBILITIES AND FEATURES OF MODERN IT TECHNOLOGIES IN DENTAL IMPLANTOLOGY. COMMUNICATION 3
Pages: 52-63
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
On the role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of age-related comorbid conditions
Authors: Isupova A.A., Isupov R.V.
Pages: 123-129
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A wide variety of diseases associated with low vitamin D levels are being supported by a growing body of research.
Data are now available on the endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine activities of vitamin D and on the major determinants
of vitamin D decline in humans. Vitamin D deficiency leads to comorbidity, impaired functioning of the human
body, which has its own characteristics depending on age.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Optimization methods for the treatment of metastatic pleuritis in breast cancer patients
Authors: Beishembaev M.I. , Lyagazov R.I. , Terekaliev B.N.
Pages: 92-98
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At the thoracic Department of the National Center of Oncology of the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of
best practices in the treatment of metastatic pleuritis with 46 of breast cancer patients from 2004 to 2018.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
OPTIMIZATION OF PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION AND STAGES OF SURGICAL CORRECTION OF SCOLIOSIS IN CHILDREN
Pages: 97-98
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CLINICAL MEDICINE
Optimization of surgical treatment methods for patients with cryptorchidism
Authors: Omurbekov T.O., Elgondiev A.А., Porozhay V.N., Esenbaev B.I., Maksut uulu E.
Pages: 53-58
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Cryptorchidism is the cause of impaired spermatogenic and hormonal function [2,5], leading to infertility in
60% of men with unilateral, and 80% to 100% with a bilateral form of cryptorchidism [1,4]. The characteristics of patient
groups and the analysis of the effectiveness of the types of surgical interventions performed in 987 children with cryptorchidism
from 6 months to 16 years for the period from 2016 to 2021 are presented. The prevailing majority (78.4%)
are represented by patients older than 1 year (from 1 to 7 years), which confirms the fact of insufficient early detection
of cryptorchidism in the first year of life and is a contributing factor in the violation of germinative function. The predominance
of unilateral cryptorchidism (93.6%) over bilateral (6.4%), inguinal testicular location (94.4%) over the abdominal
location (5.6%) was noted by localization of the process. The technique of surgical treatment of childhood
cryptorchidism according to Torek-Gertzen is more traumatic and contributes to the development of postoperative infectious
complications 2.7 times more often, and unsatisfactory results are noted 3.5 times more often in comparison with
the Sokolov-Emelianov method. The introduction of laparoscopic methods of treatment is a priority direction of modern
surgery, allowing to improve the results of surgical treatment both in the early and in the long-term period in patients
with cryptorchidism.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Optimization of the organization of early medical and diagnostic care for vascular injury
Authors: Kutuev Zh.A.
Pages: 142-146
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Introduction. In case of traumatic vascular injuries, first aid to victims is important. The data of literary sources indicate that the majority of victims die at the pre-hospital stage of care, which determines the high importance of firstaid in the first minutes after injury. The aim of the study is to evaluate the organization of early diagnosis and treatment of traumatic vascular injuries. Material and methods. Victims with vascular injury in the republic. Methods of stopping bleeding and other types of firstaid. Results and discussion. It was revealed that there is an unsatisfactory state of first aid at the site of injury. This is due
to the poor knowledge and skills of the population about the rules of self- and mutual assistance in case of injuries. Conclusions. It is necessary to widely organize short-term first aid courses for traumatic injuries, especially for bleeding in all secondary and higher educational institutions, industrial and public institutions, as well as residential quarters of cities and villages, etc. When analyzing the errors of the prehospital stage of the management of victims with vascular
trauma, we came to the conclusion that it is necessary to develop a set of modern diagnostic studies that would allow surgeons
and traumatologists of primary health care to choose the optimal organizational and tactical solution for vascular trauma. The developed organizational and tactical solutions of therapeutic and diagnostic measures for vascular injury creates optimal conditions for improving the results of treatment of victims.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Organization of dental care to the population of the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Choibekova K.M., Kasymov O.T., Kalbaev A.A., Zhorobekova K.K.
Pages: 98-103
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Introduction. Dental care is one of the most common types of assistance to the population. The prevalence of dental diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic is high. In modern conditions, dental care is provided to the population by a network of state and commercial dental institutions, mainly outpatient and inpatient (department of maxillofacial surgery) care. Purpose of the study - Evaluation of the activities of the dental health service. Materials and research methods. Dental organizations, regulatory and legal documents, retrospective analysis. Results and its discussion. Until a certain time, dental care was provided to the population by independent dental clinics. After the reorganization by joining legally independent institutions and the formation of a network of health organizations, the dental service has undergone changes in its functioning in all areas.
Thus, all independent dental organizations included in the structure of family medicine centers (FMC) and general medical
practice centers in the region are insufficiently funded for some items of expenditure. Reporting and accounting documentation is not regulated, therefore, it is impossible to control the potential capacity of the dental services market. It is
impossible to analyze the dynamics of visits to dentists and the volume of dental services performed (the sum of all fillings, prostheses and operations made). The effectiveness of the introduction and implementation of infection control
programs is decreasing. Conclusions.For the development of the dental service and the organization of high-quality dental care, legally independently functioning dental organizations are optimal.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Organization of hemodialysis centers on the terms of public-private partnership in the Kyrgyz Republic
Authors: Ismailov M.A., Dolonbaeva Z.A. , Abilov B.A.
Pages: 110-116
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The Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Kyrgyz Republic, with the support of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), initiated a public-private partnership (PPP) project for the organization of hemodialysis
centers in the cities of Bishkek, Osh and Jalal-Abad (hereinafter - the Project). This project was implemented with
the financial support of the German Development Bank KfW.
The project is intended for the treatment of patients with stage 5 chronic renal failure, based on dialysis centers of
a private partner, who previously received hemodialysis services in six state hemodialysis departments.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Organization of specialized consultative and diagnostic assistance to the population of Almaty region
Authors: Kargabayev E.Zh.
Pages: 13-21
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Introduction. The problems of organizing and providing specialized consulting and diagnostic assistance to the
population remain one of the most difficult in healthcare. Taking into account unfavorable trends in public health
in almost all regions of the country and the high rate of malignant tumor, it is extremely important to ensure
accessto qualified medical care at the prehospital phase. This is also necessary because about 80% of sick people start and finish treatment in outpatient clinics.
The growth of disease incidents rate is noted in most regions of the country. The increase in the number of primary
cases has influenced the growth of malignant tumors in many regions.
Aim of the study is to improve the organizations of specialized medical care to oncology patients based on the
analysis of screening programs.
Material and methods. The material on the results of the analysis of the level, structure and peculiarities of
morbidity of malignant tumors of the population in the southern region of Almaty region, as well as the scope
and nature of specialized consulting and diagnostic assistance to the population in the implementation of screening
programs depending on the place of residence were used.
Results. The current state of oncological service of health care of rural region according to the data of screening
of cervical cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer analysis, and also a complex of actions directed on improvement of specialized medical care with introduction of the developed functional-organizational model of specialized consultative and diagnostic help to rural population has been developed.
ASSISTANCE TO A PRACTICAL DOCTOR
Organization of stage-by-stage diagnostic and therapeutic-tactical solutions for traumatic injuries of the main vessels
Authors: Kutuev Zh.A.
Pages: 172-176
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Introduction. Victims with vascular trauma are initially admitted to general surgical hospitals. Therefore, it is important to provide full-fledged first aid and further rapid delivery of the wounded to a specialized vascular department. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of organizational work of stage-by-stage diagnostic and therapeutic
and tactical measures for vascular injury. Material and methods of research. The case histories of 574 patients with vascular trauma treated in the vascular department of the Osh Interregional Joint Clinical Hospital for the period 2011-2020 were analyzed. Staged care for vascular
injury is shown. The scope and nature of providing assistance to victims with vascular trauma at the place of injury, in primary and secondary health care facilities have been clarified. Results and discussion. Step-by-step treatment of vascular injury is described. It was revealed that the absolute majority of victims are not provided with the full volume of first aid at the place of injury, and therefore there is a need to teach a
wide segment of the population the rules of first aid. In the vascular department of the Osh Interregional United Hospital, revascularization of damaged main vessels, in some cases, neuroraphy and tendoraphy, were performed. Conclusions. Victims should receive timely, full-fledged qualified medical care at all stages of treatment: pre-hospital,
non-specialized and specialized. The timely fight against shock and blood loss, the reduction of the time before the start of specialized care, due to the correct evacuation of the victim, is of great importance in providing assistance to this category of patients. It is indicated that it is necessary to develop a clinical protocol for providing assistance to victims with
vascular trauma at all stages of medical and diagnostic work.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTH
Organization of work of the center of perinatology and pediatric cardiac surgery in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic
Authors: Bodykov G.Z., Kurmanova A.M., Bolat K.S., Bakhtiyarova M.A.
Pages: 121-127
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The article highlights the basic principles of organizing obstetric services in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic,
taking into account international experience. A schematic organization of the work of an infectious-provisional hospital
operating in June-August 2020 at the Center for Perinatology and Pediatric Cardiac Surgery is presented. Measures
are described to ensure the safety of medical personnel - compliance with the current disinfection regime, provision
of personal protective equipment, pulse oximeters, means for remote temperature measurement, and the organization
of remote consultation. A filter has been organized for patients with suspected ARVI and COVID-19 with a separate
entrance from the street, a ward for accommodating patients and a complete set of equipment and consumables for
any clinical case, up to surgical intervention. During the operation of the infectious-provisional department, 118 patients with COVID-19 received treatment, 48 deliveries were received, of which 20 were delivered by caesarean section (41%).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Oxidation analysis of exogenous substrates in the tissues of the male reproductive system of intact rats
Authors: Al Meselmani M.A.
Pages: 27-32
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Objective. To study the state of oxygen consumption processes in the tissues of the male reproductive system of intact rats. Methods. The parameters of oxygen uptake were studied by polarographic method using Clark electrode in Hanks medium at t 25 °C in the testes of intact rats on endogenous, exogenous substrates and in the presence of 2,4-DNF. Results. The oxygen consumption index on endogenous substrates (Vend) was 3.71±0.09 nmol O2/min mg of protein, and in the presence of exogenous succinate substrates (Vsuc) it increased by 103% and (Vglu indicator) - by 53% when using glutamate, and it was also shown that the testes are resistant to sodium amytal inhibitors and sodium malonate. Conclusion. Testicular tissue preparations have a high level of oxygen consumption, both on endogenous substrates (Vend) and in the presence of exogenous oxidation substrates – succinate (Vsuc) and glutamate, which is of great importance for maintaining testicular function, sperm motility and male fertility.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Parapsoriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta: review of clinical presentation
Authors: Usubaliev M.B., Dhroso H., Djusupbekov S. D. , Iusupova D.M.
Pages: 33-38
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Introduction. The article describes a rare clinical case of acute varioliform Mucha — Habermann parapsoriasis in a six-year-old child. This rare dermatosis is characterized by the presence of spots and/or papules covered with smallplate scales. Clinical observation of this case is of interest to practicing dermatologists due to the rare occurrence of this disease in children, the complexity of differential diagnostic search.
The aim of the study. Description of a clinical case of acute varioliform parapsoriasis of Gaberman-Much in a 6-year-old
boy. Materials and methods. Review of domestic and foreign literature sources describing the current features of the course of parapsoriasis, using the search engines PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, RSCI. Description of the clinical case. Results. A good effect was obtained from detoxification therapy with isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%) and local therapy with glucocorticosteroid and antibacterial ointments, aniline dyes. Conclusions.The case is presented to draw the attention of the medical community to the problem of acute parapsoriasis.
REVIEWS AND LECTURES
PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE EYE IN SEVERE CRANIOCEREBRAL  INJURY
Pages: 7-9
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REVIEWS AND LECTURES
Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 (literature review)
Authors: Mamytova E.M., Ubariк k. Zh.
Pages: 143-148
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The occurrence of stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection is relatively rare, but COVID-19 is an important
prognostic marker and indicator of severity. This brief review suggests that ischemic stroke may occur early in the disease
and may also affects patients in younger age groups without comorbidities, causing large vessel occlusion and exhibiting
thrombo-inflammatory neuroimaging. The mechanisms underlying the development of stroke in patients with COVID-
19 may be associated both with the usual factors of increased risk of stroke, traditionally found in patients without COVID-
19, and with the development of coagulopathy induced by infection against the background of a systemic inflammatory
reaction characteristic for coronavirus infection.
FRONT LINE
Pathophysiological and Clinical aspects of Nervous System affection in COVID-19
Authors: Mamytova E.M.
Pages: 8-15
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COVID-19 disease is characterized by respiratory ways and other organs and system affection. One of frequent clinical
manifestation is neurological dysfunction. There is presented the most known up-to day COVID-19 associated neurological
disorders in this review. Among the most common neurological manifestations are myalgias, headaches, encephalopathy,
dizziness, dysgeusia and anosmia. Other conditions such as meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis,
hemorrhagic necrotizing encephapathy and Guillain-Barré syndrome can be attributed to COVID-19 associated complications.
The pathophysiological aspects underlying COVID-19 mediated neuroinvasion, which are based on the high
affinity of binding of SARS-CoV2 to the ACE2 receptor, are presented.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Peculiarities of pathogenesis of perifocal edema in glial tumors of the brain and possibilities of its surgical and medical correction
Authors: Karimov Zh.M.
Pages: 119-129
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With volumetric brain lesions, perifocal edema in most cases affects the severity of the clinical picture, especially
in glial tumors of the brain due to the development and growth of tumor cells, toxic effects on the surrounding
brain tissue. We have identified morphological and water-electrolyte disturbances in the zone of perifocal edema in glial
brain tumors and determined the possibilities of its correction in the pre-, intra- and postoperative periods. The study included
534 patients operated on for glial brain tumors (glioblastoma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and ependymoma).
Preoperative neuroimaging and intraoperative study of tissue structures in the zone of perifocal edema and microcirculation
of the vessels of the cerebral cortex over the healthy and affected zones were carried out. Glial tumors of the temporal
lobe (27.9±1.9 per 100 patients), parietal lobe (22.5±1.8), p<0.05, frontal (21.9±1.7) , p>0.05, occipital (18.3±1.6),
p>0.05, and deep localization accounted for 9.4±1.2 cases per 100 patients, p<0.001. The study gives a morphological
assessment of the zones of perifocal edema and presents a division according to the degree of severity of the zone of perifocal
edema in glial tumors in points. The study showed pronounced morphological changes in the water-electrolyte
composition of brain cells and intercellular space, blood vessels, nerve fibers in the area of perifocal edema in malignant
glial tumors, especially in Grade III-IV. These studies made it possible to prevent complications, conduct adequate dehydration
therapy in the pre- and postoperative periods, as well as correctly plan the course of the operation.
CLINICAL MEDICINE
Peculiarities of the pathogenesis of the perifocal zone in glioblastom of the brain
Authors: Karimov Zh.M.
Pages: 47-54
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In this work, the pathogenesis of the perifocal edema zone in glioblastomas of the brain was studied according to the
data of MRI of the brain, morphological, morphometric, biochemical and histological studies. The zone of perifocal
edema is the main factor of the dislocation syndrome, leading to an increase in clinical symptoms, sometimes to the
death of patients, therefore, the study of the zone of perifocal edema was of interest not only to clinicians, but also to
radiologists, pathologists and pathophysiologists. Timely recognition of both pre and postoperative treatment to resolve
the edema results in successful tumor removal and early recovery of prolapse symptoms. In our work, for the first time,
a more detailed study and a morphological assessment of the zones of perifocal edema are given and are divided into
parts according to the signs of morphological changes. A detailed study of water, lipids and electrolytes in the intercellular
space and cells was carried out. Histological materials have been studied. In this work, histological materials are thoroughly
studied and a more detailed characteristic is given for pronounced changes in the area of perifocal edema with
division into zones, taking into account reversible and irreversible processes and its pre-, intra-, postoperative correction.